Your program can manipulate a number of video attributes. The following sections provide information on video attributes and the subroutines that affect them.
Curses enables you to control the following attributes:
|A_STANDOUT||Terminal's best highlighting mode.|
|A_BOLD||Extra bright or bold.|
|A_ALTCHARSET||Alternate character set.|
|COLOR_PAIR( Number)||Displays the color pair represented by Number. You must have already initialized the color pair using the init_pair subroutine.|
These attributes are defined in the curses.h file. You can pass attributes to the wattron, wattroff, and wattrset subroutines or you can OR them with the characters passed to the waddch subroutine. The C logical OR operator is a | (pipe symbol). The following bit masks are also provided:
|A_NORMAL||Turns all video attributes off.|
|A_CHARTEXT||Extracts a character.|
|A_COLOR||Extracts color-pair field information.|
Two macros are provided for working with color pairs: COLOR_PAIR(Number) and PAIR_NUMBER(Attribute). The COLOR_PAIR(Number) macro and the A_COLOR mask are used by the PAIR_NUMBER(Attribute) macro to extract the color-pair number found in the attributes specified by the Attribute parameter.
If your program uses color, the curses.h file defines a number of macros that identify default colors. These colors are the following:
Curses assumes that the default background color for all terminals is 0 (COLOR_BLACK).
The current window attributes are applied to all characters written into the window with the addch subroutines. These attributes remain as a property of the characters. The characters retain these attributes during terminal operations.
The attrset subroutine sets the current attributes of the default screen. The wattrset subroutine sets the current attributes of the user-defined window.
Use the attron and attroff subroutines to turn on and off the specified attributes in the stdscr without affecting any others. The wattron and wattroff subroutines perform the same actions in user-defined windows.
The standout subroutine is the same as a call to the attron subroutine with the A_STANDOUT attribute. It puts the stdscr into the terminal's best highlight mode. The wstandout subroutine is the same as a call to the wattron(Window, A_STANDOUT) subroutine. It puts the user-defined window into the terminal's best highlight mode. The standend subroutine is the same as a call to the attrset(0) subroutine. It turns off all attributes for stdscr. The wstandend subroutine is the same as a call to the wattrset(Window, 0) subroutine. It turns off all attributes for the specified window.
The vidputs subroutine outputs a string that puts the terminal in the specified attribute mode. Characters are output through the putc subroutine. The vidattr subroutine is the same as the vidputs subroutine except that characters are output through the putchar subroutine.
The COLOR_PAIR(Number) macro is defined in the curses.h file so you can manipulate color attributes as you would any other attributes. You must initialize a color pair with the init_pair subroutine before you use it. The init_pair subroutine has three parameters Pair, Foreground, and Background. The Pair parameter must be between 1 and COLOR_PAIRS-1. The Foreground and Background parameters must be between 0 and COLORS-1. For example, to initialize color pair 1 to a foreground of black with a background of cyan, you would use the following:
init_pair(1, COLOR_BLACK, COLOR_CYAN);
You could then set the attributes for the window as:
If you then write the string Let's add Color to the terminal, the string appears as black characters on a cyan background.
You can use the results from the call to the winch subroutine to extract attribute information, including the color-pair number. The following example uses the value returned by a call to the winch subroutine with the C logical AND operator (& ) and the A_ATTRIBUTES bit mask to extract the attributes assigned to the current position in the window. The results from this operation are used with the PAIR_NUMBER macro to extract the color-pair number, and the number 1 is printed on the screen.
win = newwin(10, 10, 0, 0); init_pair(1, COLOR_RED, COLOR_YELLOW); wattrset(win, COLOR_PAIR(1)); waddstr(win, "apple"); number = PAIR_NUMBER((mvwinch(win, 0, 0) & A_ATTRIBUTES)); wprintw(win, "%d\n", number); wrefresh(win);
The beep subroutine sounds an audible alarm on the terminal to signal the user. The flash subroutine displays a visible alarm on the terminal to signal the user.
All curses options are initially turned off. It is not necessary to turn these options off before calling the endwin subroutine. The following subroutines allow you to set various options with curses:
|curs_set||Sets the cursor visibility to invisible, normal, or very visible.|
|idlok||Specifies whether curses can use the hardware insert and delete line features of terminals so equipped.|
|intrflush||Specifies whether an interrupt key (interrupt, quit, or suspend) flushes all output in the tty driver. This option's default is inherited from the tty driver.|
|keypad||Specifies whether curses retrieves the information from the terminal's keypad. If enabled, the user can press a function key (such as an arrow key) and the wgetch subroutine returns a single value representing that function key. If disabled, curses will not treat the function keys specially and your program must interpret the escape sequences. For a list of these function keys, see the wgetch subroutine.|
|typeahead||Instructs curses to check for type ahead in an alternative file descriptor.|
See the wgetch subroutines and "Setting Terminal Input and Output Modes" for descriptions of additional curses options.
Curses Overview for Programming
List of Curses Subroutines