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Chapter 2. Alphabetical List


A. See ampere.

abbreviation. A character string representing a longer character string.

abend. (1.) The abnormal end of a task. (2.) The ending of a task before its completion because of an error condition that recovery facilities cannot resolve while the task is running.

abort. This term refers to transactions that do not complete. Any changes made by a transaction that is aborted, for whatever reason, must be undone. Once a transaction is undone (rolled back), no evidence that the transaction was ever attempted remains outside of records in the transaction processing system's log. See also rolled back.

absolute address. An address that, without the need for further evaluation, identifies a storage location or a device.

absolute device. A locating device, such as a tablet, that reports its position to the operating system as a set of numbers on a coordinate system.

absolute time. A point on a time scale.

absolute value. The numeric value of a real number regardless of its algebraic sign (positive or negative).

abstract class. A SOM class that is not designed to be instantiated, but serves as a base class for the definition of subclasses. Regardless of whether an abstract class inherits instance data and methods from parent classes, it will always introduce methods that must be overridden in a subclass, in order to produce a class whose objects are semantically valid.

Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1). A notation that enables both complicated types to be defined and values of these types to be specified.

abstraction (data). A data type with a private representation and a public set of operations.

accelerator. In AIXwindows, a keyboard alternative to a mouse button action. For example, holding the <Shift> and <M> keys on the keyboard can be made to post a menu in the same way that a mouse button action does. Accelerators typically provide increased input speed and greater convenience.

access. To obtain data from or to put data in storage.

access control list (ACL). (1.) A file attribute that contains the basic and extended permissions that control access to the file. (2.) A list of hosts (maintained by Enhanced X-Windows) that have access to client programs. By default, only programs on the local host and those in this list, also known as "access list," can use the display. The list can be changed by clients on the local host; some server implementations can also modify the list. The authorization protocol name and data received by the server at connection setup may affect the list as well. See also discretionary access control.

access control list entry. Data in an access control list that specifies a set of permissions. In the case of a principal or group entry, the permission set is that which may be granted to a principal having the privilege attribute specified in the entry; in the case of a mask entry, the permission set is that which masks the permission set in a principal or group entry.

access declaration. Used to restore access to members of a base class.

access level. In computer security, the level of authority a user has while accessing a secured file or library.

access permission. A group of designations that determine who can access a particular file and how the user can access the file. See also permission code.

access procedure. The procedure or protocol used for gaining access to a shared resource. In a local area network, the shared resource is the transmission medium. The medium access procedures specified by the IEEE 802 standard are CSMA/CD token bus and token ring.

access resolution. The process by which the accessibility of a particular class member is determined.

access right. See permission.

accessible. Said of an object for which the client possesses a valid designator or handle.

account. The log in directory and other information that give a user access to the system.

accounting system. A utility that monitors various aspects of system operations; it collects detailed data on each transaction and provides tools for processing the data to produce different kinds of reports.

ACK. See acknowledgment character.

ACK0. A transmission control character for even positive acknowledgment; indicates that text was received without transmission errors.

ACK1. A transmission control character for odd positive acknowledgment; indicates that text was received without transmission errors.

acknowledge. (1.) To answer. To respond to a poll, address, or message. (2.) In the X.25 API, to confirm that a data packet with the D-bit set has arrived.

acknowledge timeout. The number of seconds that a station should wait for an acknowledgment from a remote station after sending data.

acknowledgment character (ACK). In binary synchronous communications, a transmission control character sent as an affirmative response to a data transmission.

ACL. See access control list.

ACM. Association for Computing Machinery.

ACSE. Association Control Service Element.

action. (1.) A defined task that an application performs. An action modifies the properties of an object or manipulates the object in some way. A processing step or operation. (2.) In the awk command, the lex command, and the yacc command, a C language program fragment that defines what the program does when it recognizes input. (3.) In CDE, a desktop construct that provides a method for running applications, executing commands, and other activities such as printing, removing files, and changing directories. Actions are defined in a database of configuration files.

action icon. In CDE, an icon that represents an action in a File Manager or Application Manager window, or in the workspace. An action icon is created by creating an empty executable file with the same name as the action it represents.

action label. In CDE, the name displayed under the icon of an action. See also action name.

action name. In CDE, the name associated with an action, which by default is displayed under the icon for the action. See also action label.

action statement. C language program fragments that define how the generated lexical analyzer reacts to regular expressions that it recognizes.

action table. In Xtoolkit, a table that specifies the mapping of externally available procedure strings to the corresponding procedure implemented by the widget class. All widget class records contain an action table.

activate. To point with the mouse pointer and double-click, successfully causing something to happen.

active. (1.) The windowpane in which the text cursor is currently positioned is said to be "active." (2.) One of the states in the lifetime of a transaction. This is the state during which it is accessing or modifying data.

active gateway. A gateway that is treated like a network interface in that it is expected to exchange routing information. If it does not do so for a period of time, the route associated with the gateway is deleted. Contrast with passive gateway. See also gateway.

active grab. In Enhanced X-Windows, a grab actually owned by the grabbing client. Contrast with passive grab. See also button grabbing and grab.

actual parameter. The actual value passed to a routine. Contrast with formal parameter.

ACU. See automatic calling unit or auto-call unit.

adapter. (1.) A mechanism for connecting two unlike parts or machines. (2.) A printed circuit card that modifies the system unit to allow it to operate in a particular way. See also communications adapter and card.

adapter code. In X.25 communications, the X.25 Interface Co-Processor/2 Protocol Code, which controls the frame-level and packet-level communication processing.

adapter descriptor file (ADF). A file of predefined information used to set up the programmable option select (POS) registers for an adapter. The adapter descriptor file database is on a system hard disk.

add mode. In addition and subtraction operations, a mode in which the decimal marker is placed at a predetermined location with respect to the last digit entered. In selection actions, a mode that allows the selection to be unaffected by keyboard navigation.

address. (1.) The telephone number that remote systems use to call the system. (2.) To refer to a device or an item of data by its address. (3.) In word processing, the location, identified by an address code, of a specific section of the recording medium or storage. (4.) In data communication, the unique code assigned to each device or workstation connected to a network. See also network user address. (5.) A numbering system used in network communications to identify a specific network or host with which to communicate. Addresses are often denoted in dotted decimal form. See also presentation address.

address extension. In X.25 communications, the called and calling address extensions are optional CCITT-specified facilities, available on networks that conform to the 1984 version of X.25. Synonymous with extended address.

address family. See protocol family.

address field. The part of a packet containing addressing information. See also packet.

address list. The list used by the xtalk command to associate users' names with network user addresses and other information, for the purpose of making outgoing X.25 calls without the caller having to know the addresses. There is one address list for the system and one for each user. See also system address list and user address list.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). One of the protocols provided by TCP/IP that dynamically maps between Internet addresses, Baseband Adapter addresses, X.25 addresses, and Token-Ring Adapter addresses on a local area network.

address space. The code, stack, and data that is accessible by a process.

Address Translation Register (ATR). A mechanism that translates real addresses to virtual addresses.

addressing. (1.) In data communications, the way that the sending or controlling station selects the station to which it is sending data. (2.) A means of identifying storage locations. (3.) Specifying an address or location within a file. (4.) The assignment of addresses to the instructions of a program. See also selection.

ADF. See adapter descriptor file.

adjust. The process of moving text to fit between the left and right margins.

ADK (Application Developer's Kit). The component of the License Use Management system that is used by software developers to define and create licenses for software products.

administration environment. The part of the Monitor that facilitates system configuration and management.

ADU. See automatic dialing unit.

Advanced Program-to-Program Communication (APPC). A communications architecture that allows transaction programs to exchange information on a peer-to-peer basis. SNA LU 6.2 allows APPC architecture to operate on an SNA network.

advisory lock. A type of lock that a process holds on a region of a file preventing any other process from locking the region or an overlapping region. See also enforced lock.

affinity group. In SOM, an array of class objects that were all registered with the SOMClassMgr object during the dynamic loading of a class. Any class is a member of at most one affinity group.

aggregate. (1.) An array, structure, or union. (2.) In programming languages, a structured collection of data objects for a data type. (3.) A transmitted carrier signal that consists of the 12 single-side bands being sent over the transmission circuit.

aggregate type. In SOM, a user-defined data type that combines basic types (such as, char, short, float, and so on) into a more complex type (such as structs, arrays, strings, sequences, unions, or enums).

Common Desktop Environment. A visual user interface for the operating system consisting of icons and menus within an AIXwindows window. An iconic view of the file system providing users with windows, icons, and menus to perform program and file management tasks.

AIXwindows Environment. A software graphical user interface environment based on OSF/MOTIF consisting of the AIXwindows toolkit, graphics libraries, window manager, and desktop running on top of a compatible operating system.

AIXwindows Resource Manager (MRM). A database management system that allows a user to effectively retrieve and assign information, such as specific values and other attributes, especially regarding applications that allow a user to select color, font, and other resource preferences. The MRM system consists of library subroutines that access the AIXwindows User Interface Language (UIL) at run time and create user interfaces. See also AIXwindows User Interface Language (UIL).

AIXwindows Toolkit. An object-oriented collection of C language data structures and subroutines that supplement the Enhanced X-Windows toolkit and simplify the creation of interactive client application interfaces.

AIXwindows User Interface Definition (UID). A file containing the definitions for all objects included in a particular user application. The UID is a subset of the AIXwindows User Interface Language (UIL) and functions similarly to the UIL for the particular application to which it belongs. See also AIXwindows User Interface Language (UIL).

AIXwindows User Interface Language (UIL). A compiled-specific language for describing the initial state of a user interface. UIL specifies the widgets, gadgets, and compound objects that make up the interface; it also identifies the subroutines to be called whenever the interface changes state as a result of user interaction. See also AIXwindows User Interface Definition (UID).

alarm. An audible signal at a workstation or printer that is used to get the operator's attention.

alert. In SNA, an error message sent to the system services control point (SSCP) at the host system.

algorithm. A finite set of well-defined rules for the solution of a problem in a finite number of steps; for example, a complete specification of a sequence of arithmetic operations for evaluating sine x to a given precision.

alias. (1.) An alternate name for a node or a file that can be used in place of the real name of the node or file. (2.) An alternate label for a data element or point in a computer program. (3.) An alternate name for a member of a partitioned data set. (4.) Unofficial name used for the network. Synonymous with nickname. (5.) An assumed or actual association between two data entities, or between a data entity and a pointer.

aliasing. (1.) A compilation process that attempts to determine what aliases exist, so that optimization does not result in incorrect program results.

alignment. The position in main storage of a fixed-length field, such as halfword or doubleword, on an integral boundary for that unit of information. For example, a word boundary is a storage address evenly divisible by four.

All Points Addressable (APA) display. A display that allows each picture element (pel) to be individually addressed and displayed. An APA display permits the display of images that are not predefined in character boxes. Contrast with character display. See also bitmapped display.

allocate. (1.) To assign a resource, such as a disk file or a diskette file, to perform a specific task. Contrast with deallocate. (2.) A request to allocate a session between the local LU and a remote LU. (3.) In NCS, to create a Remote Procedure Call (RPC) handle that identifies an object.

alphabetic character. A letter or other symbol, excluding digits, used in a language. Usually the uppercase and lowercase letters A through Z plus other special symbols (such as $ and _) allowed by a particular language. See also alphanumeric character.

alphanumeric character. Consisting of letters, numbers, and often other symbols, such as punctuation marks and mathematical symbols. See also alphabetic character.

alphanumeric set. Character set composed of uppercase and lowercase letters and numbers, but no symbols. See also alphanumeric character.

alternate cell (isolated cell). An NCS cell that restricts access to a partial group of nodes in the network. This cell type is usually used to confine License Use Management license transactions to a particular set of nodes in the network.

alternate character set. A set of characters that includes some special characters, such as mathematical characters and Greek characters, and that is defined for some printers.

ALU. Arithmetic and logical unit.

ambient light. In three-dimensional graphics, light that reflects off one or more surfaces in the scene before arriving at the target surface. Ambient light is assumed to be nondirectional, and is reflected uniformly in all directions by the reflecting surface. In GL, ambient light is mocked up by use of ambient terms in the lighting equation, rather than actually computing the reflections.

ambiguous derivation. Derivation is ambiguous if a C++ class is derived from two or more base classes that have the same name.

American National Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII). The code developed by ANSI for information interchange among data processing systems, data communications systems, and associated equipment. The ASCII character set consists of 7-bit control characters and symbolic characters.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI). An organization sponsored by the Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association through which accredited organizations create and maintain voluntary industry standards.

amp. See ampere.

ampere (A or amp). A unit of measurement for electric current that is equivalent to a flow of 1 coulomb per second, or to the current produced by 1 volt applied across a resistance of 1 ohm.

amplitude. The size or magnitude of a voltage or current wave form.

ancestor. In Enhanced X-Windows, a widget that has inferior widgets. In other words, the superior or predecessor of an inferior widget. If W is an inferior of A, then A is an ancestor of W.

ancestor class. A SOM class from which another class inherits instance methods, attributes, and instance variables, either directly or indirectly. A direct descendant of an ancestor class is called a child class, derived class, or subclass. A direct ancestor of a class is called a parent class, base class, or superclass.

annotation. See license annotation.

anonymous union. A union in C++ without a class name. It must not be followed by a declarator.

ANSI. See American National Standards Institute.

antialiasing. Techniques used to smooth the "jaggies" otherwise found on lines and polygon edges caused by scan conversion. Common techniques include adjusting pixel positions or setting pixel intensities according to the percent of pixel area coverage at each point.

a.out. (1.) An output file produced by default for certain commands. By default, this file is executable and contains information for the symbolic debug program. (2.) The object file format created by the cc command and expected by the exec subroutine.

APA. See All Points Addressable Display.

APAR. Authorized program analysis report. A report of a problem caused by a suspected defect in a current unaltered release of a program.

API. See application program interface.

APL. A programming language. A general-purpose language for diverse applications such as commercial data processing, system design, mathematical and scientific computation, database applications, and the teaching of mathematics and other subjects.

AppBuilder. In CDE, a software application used for constructing a graphical user interface.

APPC. See Advanced Program-To-Program Communications.

append. (1.) The action that causes data to be added to the end of existing data. (2.) In word processing, to attach a file to the end of another file.

applet. A program, intended for delivery over the Internet, which can be included in an HTML page, just as an image can be included.

application. (1.) A program or group of programs that apply to a particular business area, such as Inventory Control or the Accounts Receivable application. (2.) Software coded by or for end users that performs a service or accomplishes work-related tasks. (3.) In AIXwindows and Enhanced X-Windows, the environment is modeled on a traditional client-server relationship in which compatible applications are considered clients of the Enhanced X-Windows server.

Application Developer's Kit. See ADK.

application development environment. The Monitor functions used to construct transactional applications.

application group. In CDE, an Application Manager folder that holds a specific software application or set of software applications.

application icon. See action icon.

application identifier (ID). A unique identifier used to identify an application in the RPCs sent in a distributed environment.

Application Manager. In CDE, a window containing objects representing the system actions available to you.

application program. A program used to perform an application or part of an application.

application program interface (API). (1.) A set of run-time routines or system calls that allows an application program to use a particular service provided by either the operating system or another licensed program. (2.) The formally defined programming language interface that is between a system control program or a licensed program and the user of the program.

application programmer. A programmer who uses an API to produce an application.

application server. In CDE, a host computer that provides access to a software application.

application shell. A subclass of top-level shell, this shell is used primarily for an application's top-level window.

application transaction program. (1.) A program that performs an application or part of an application. (2.) A program that connects and communicates with stations in a network, enabling users to perform application-oriented activities. See also transaction program and service transaction program.

application window. A rectangular area that displays the graphics associated with a specific application. Application windows can be opened, closed, combined with other types of windows, moved, stacked, and otherwise manipulated through user interaction with a window manager.

apply. (1.) In journaling, to place after-images of records into a physical file member. The after-images are recorded as entries in a journal. (2.) When a service update is installed or applied, it enters the applied state and becomes the currently active version of the software. When an update is in the applied state, the previous version of the update is stored in a special save directory. This allows you to restore the previous version, if necessary, without having to reinstall it. Software that has been applied to the system can be either committed or rejected. The installp -s command can be used to get a list of applied products and updates that are available to be either committed or rejected. See also commit and reject.

Apply. In CDE, a choice that causes a selection (or group of selections) in a dialog box to take effect.

apply list file. A file that contains an entry for each file to be restored during an installation or an update procedure.

apply stub. A SOM procedurecorresponding to a particular method that accepts as arguments: the object on which the method is to be invoked, a pointer to a location in memory where the method's result should be stored, a pointer to the method's procedure, and the method's arguments in the form of a va_list. The apply stub extracts the arguments from the va_list, invokes the method with its arguments, and stores its result in the specified location. Apply stubs are registered with class objects when instance methods are defined, and are invoked using the somApply function. Typically, implementations that overridesomDispatch call somApply to invoke a method on a va_list of arguments.

Appointment Editor. In CDE, in Calendar, a window you use to schedule, change, or delete an appointment.

Appointment List. In CDE, a chronological list of appointments displayed by Calendar.

Arabic numerals. The 10 numerals used for depicting decimal numbers: the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. No font is implied. See also Roman numerals.

archive. (1.) To store programs and data for safekeeping. (2.) A copy of one or more files or a copy of a database that is saved in case the original data is damaged or lost.

archive library. A place where programs are stored for safekeeping.

arg pointer. A pointer to a subroutine parameter argument.

argument. (1.) Numbers, letters, or words that expand or change the way a command works. (2.) A parameter passed between a calling routine and a called routine. (3.) An independent variable.

argument list. A string of arguments.

argument string. An ordered list of parameters passed between programs or routines.

arithmetic constant. In a programming language, a constant of type integer, real, double precision, or complex. See also arithmetic expression and arithmetic operator.

arithmetic expression. One or more arithmetic operators and arithmetic primaries, the evaluation of which produces a numeric value. An arithmetic expression can be an unsigned arithmetic constant, the name of an arithmetic constant, a reference to an arithmetic variable, array element, or function, or a combination of such primaries formed by using arithmetic operators and parentheses. See also arithmetic constant and arithmetic operator.

arithmetic object. An integral object or objects having the float, double, or long double type. The C compiler also recognizes objects having the long double type as arithmetic objects.

arithmetic operator. A symbol that directs a compiler to perform an arithmetic operation. See also arithmetic expression and arithmetic constant.

ARK (Administrator Runtime Kit). In License Use Management, the run-time environment for licensed software products. It consists of the network license server daemon (netlsd) and its associated tools: ls_admin, ls_rpt, and ls_stat.

ARP. See Address Resolution Protocol.

ARPA. Advanced Research Projects Association.

ARPA RFC 822. Standard of ARPA internet text messages.

array. (1.) A structure that contains an ordered group of data elements. All elements in an array have the same data type. (2.) An arrangement of data in one or more dimensions, such as a list, table, or multidimensional arrangement of items. (3.) In programming languages, an aggregate that consists of data elements, with identical attributes, each of which may be uniquely referenced by subscripting.

array declarator. The part of a statement that describes an array used in a program unit. The description includes the name of the array, the number of dimensions, and the size of each dimension.

array element. A single data item in an array.

array name. The name of an ordered set of data items.

array padding. In a multiple-array definition, the optimization of adding elements to each array, or adding small arrays between user-defined arrays, to improve the memory-access characteristics of the arrays.

arrow button. A graphic control that simulates a push button with a directional arrow. People use the pointer and mouse to push the button and start some action that has an associated direction.

arrow keys. In CDE, the four directional keys on a keyboard.

art tag. In hypertext, a tag linking text to an artwork window.

artwork frame. In Interleaf, the container for graphical data.

ASCII. See American National Standard Code for Information Interchange.

ASCII characters. The characters that make up the ASCII character set. The ASCII character set consists of 7-bit control characters and symbolic characters. See also American National Standard Code for Information Interchange.

ASCII flat file. See flat file.

ASCIIZ format. A string ending with a null character.

ASN.1. See Abstract Syntax Notation One.

aspect ratio. The ratio of the height of a primitive to its width. A rectangle with a width of 10 inches and a height of 5 inches has an aspect ratio of 10/5 or 2.

assemble. To translate an assembly program into a computer language. Assembling is usually accomplished by substituting the computer language operation codes for the assembly language operation code, and by substituting absolute addresses, immediate addresses, relocatable addresses, or virtual addresses for symbolic addresses.

assembler. A computer program that converts assembly language instructions into object code. Synonymous with assembly program.

assembler language. A symbolic programming language in which the set of instructions includes the instructions of the machine and whose data structures correspond directly to the storage and registers of the machine.

assembly program. Synonym for assembler.

assertion. See program assertion.

assignment compatible. Indicates whether the type of a value allows it to be assigned to a variable. See also compatible types.

assignment conversion. A change to the form of the right operand that makes the right operand have the same data type as the left operand.

assignment expression. In C language, an expression that assigns the value of the right operand expression to the left operand variable and has as its value the value of the right operand.

assignment statement. In programming languages, a statement that assigns the value of an expression to a variable.

associative transformation. An optimization that involves changing the order of an expression. An associative transformation yields mathematically identical results but not always bitwise identical results.

associativity. The order for grouping operands with an operator (either left-to-right or right-to-left).

async. See asynchronous transmission.

asynchronous. Not synchronized in time. For example, input events are controlled by the user; the program can read them later.

asynchronous device. A device using data transmission in which transmission of a character or a block of characters can begin at any time, but in which the bits that represent the character or block have equal time duration.

asynchronous operation. An operation that does not of itself cause the process requesting the operation to be blocked from further use of the CPU. This implies that the process and the operation are running concurrently.

asynchronous terminal. A computer terminal using asynchronous signals to communicate with a host machine.

Asynchronous Terminal Emulation. A program that provides emulation of a remote asynchronous terminal.

asynchronous transmission. Data transmission in which transmission of a character or block of characters can begin at any time, but in which the bits that represent the character or block have equal time duration. Contrast with synchronous transmission. See also start-stop.

ATE. See Asynchronous Terminal Emulation.

ATM. Asynchronous transfer mode. A cell-switching, connection-oriented technology. In ATM networks, end stations attach to the network using dedicated full duplex connections.

atom. (1.) A unique ID corresponding to a string name. Atoms are used to identify properties, types, and selections. (2.) A 32-bit number that represents a string value. See also X Atom.

atomic operation. An operation in which signals cannot occur between the operations of setting the masks and waiting for the signal.

ATR. See Address Translation Register.

attachment. (1.) The physical connection to the network that makes it work. (2.) A type of resource that controls CPs, logical link control, and physical link control. (3.) In CDE, In Mailer, a data object within an electronic mail message that is displayed as an icon in the Attachments list. An attachment can be text, sound, or a graphic. Multiple messages can be added (attached) to a single electronic mail message.

attachment class. The attachment class specifies the mode in which a station will connect to the FDDI network. A station may be a dual attachment station (DAS) or a single attachment station (SAS).

attachment profile. Contains parameters that associate other defined profiles with the attachment of the LU to the network. These parameters also define the type of network being used.

attenuation. (1.) A decrease in magnitude of current, voltage, or power of a signal in transmission between points. It may be expressed in decibels or nepers. (2.) In 3D graphics, the fall off of light intensity with distance.

attribute. (1.) A characteristic or property of one or more objects or entities. For example, the attribute for a displayed field could be "blinking." (2.) In GL, a parameter that can affect the appearance of a drawing primitive. For instance, color is an attribute. If the color is set to "RED," it will remain red until changed, and everything that is drawn will be drawn in red. Other attributes include linestyle, linewidth, pattern, and font. For a list of attributes and pipeline options, see also pipeline options. (3.) In devices, a characteristic of a defined or configured device. (4.) In SOM, A specialized SOM syntax for declaring "set" and "get" methods. Method names corresponding to attributes always begin with "_set_" or "_get_". An attribute name is declared in the body of the interface statement for a class. Method procedures for get/set methods are automatically defined by the SOM Compiler unless an attribute is declared as "noget/noset". Likewise, a corresponding instance variable is automatically defined unless an attribute is declared as "nodata". IDL also supports "readonly" attributes, which specify only a "get" method. Contrast with instance variable. See also resource value.

attribute file. In system configuration, a text file that is organized into stanzas, each of which has a stanza name and a set of attribute definitions in the form of Attribute=Value pairs. Configuration files have the attribute file format.

attribute (of file). Some portion of the information about a file that determines its access and organizational characteristics.

attribute pair. See attribute, value, and resource value.

attribute value. See attribute, value, and resource value.

audit events. Occurrences on the system that may be security violations. These events cause an audit record to be written.

audit trail. A collection of audit records.

auditing subsystem. A mechanism that lets an administrator detect potential or actual security violations in the system. Components of this subsystem detect audit events, log and collect audit events in a system audit trail, and process the audit trails.

authentication. Verifying the identity of a user when the login or su command is given. For example, the operating-system method of authentication consists of checking the password entered by a user against the encrypted version of the password previously defined for that user. A secondary authentication method can be added for additional checks, such as verifying the identity of a user to a network.

authoring environment. The organization and equipment that allow the creation of hypertext documents.

authorization. (1.) The determination of a principal's permissions with respect to a protected object. (2.) The approval of a permission sought by a principal with respect to a protected object.

authorization protocol. A formal procedure for establishing the authorization of principals with respect to protected objects.

authorize. (1.) To grant to a user the right to communicate with or make use of a computer system or display station. (2.) To give a user either complete or restricted access to an object, resource, or function.

auto-answer. The ability of a station to receive a call over a switched line without operator action.

auto-call. The ability of a station to place a call over a switched line without operator action. Contrast with manual call.

auto-call unit (ACU). In X.25 communications, a device that automatically makes and answers calls.

autodialer. See automatic dialing unit.

autoexec. A command or list of commands run at login time.

AUTOLOG. A menu-driven utility program provided in the 3270 Host Connection Program 2.1 and 1.3.3 and used to create logon procedures.

automatic calling unit (ACU). A device that allows a host to automatically dial the number of a remote device.

automatic dialing unit (ADU). A device that can automatically generate dialing digits.

automatic scrolling. The scrolling action that takes place automatically when a cursor is moved to the border of a pane.

automatic variable. A variable allocated on entry to a routine and deallocated on the return. Contrast with static variable.

autonomous system. A group of networks and gateways for which one administrative authority has responsibility. An autonomous system can be small or very large.

autonumber. A unique number associated with the prefix of each component in the Interleaf desktop publishing software. Because each autonumber has a unique value, these numbers are used to create references to their components elsewhere in the text. In hardcopy, an autonumber can be used to create a page reference that renumbers automatically as its associated component moves to a different page. In hypertext, autonumbers are used to create the hypertext links that jump to the corresponding component. For the ordered-list item component and the figure caption component, the autonumbers are visible and are used to number a series of these items in the proper order.

autonumber reference. A hardcopy or softcopy reference created from an autonumber. The autonumber reference automatically renumbers to reflect the status of its corresponding autonumber. In softcopy, an autonumber reference is associated with a hypertext link so that the link jumps to the corresponding autonumber. See also autonumber.

autopush. A STREAMS mechanism that enables a prespecified list of modules to be pushed automatically onto the stream when a STREAMS device is opened.

auxiliary class data structure. A SOM structure provided by the SOM API to support efficient static access to class-specific information used in dealing with SOM objects. The structure's name is <className>CClassData. Its first component (parentMtab) is a list of parent-class method tables (used to support efficient parent method calls). Its second component (instanceDataToken) is the instance token for the class (generally used to locate the instance data introduced by method procedures that implement methods defined by the class).

available state. The state a device is in when it is configured. The device status field in the Customized Devices Object Class in the ODM reflects whether a device is in the available state or not.

AZERTY keyboard. A keyboard in which the keys in the second-from-top row (row D) are labeled (from left to right): A, Z, E, R, T, Y, U, I, O, and P. See also QWERTY keyboard.

azimuthal angle. In GL, if a primitive is sitting on the ground, with its z coordinate straight up, the azimuthal viewing angle is the angle the observer makes with the y axis in the x-y plane. If the observer walks in a circle with the primitive at the center, the azimuthal angle is the only thing that varies.

azizo. In Performance Toolbox, a tool used to analyze performance recordings.

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