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Communications Programming Concepts

Socket Shutdown

Once a socket is no longer required, the calling program can discard the socket by applying a close subroutine to the socket descriptor. If a reliable delivery socket has data associated with it when a close takes place, the system continues to attempt data transfer. However, if the data is still undelivered, the system discards the data. Should the application program have no use for any pending data, it can use the shutdown subroutine on the socket prior to closing it.

Closing Sockets

Closing a socket and reclaiming its resources is not always a straightforward operation. In certain situations, such as when a process exits, a close subroutine is never expected to be unsuccessful. However, when a socket promising reliable delivery of data is closed with data still queued for transmission or awaiting acknowledgment of reception, the socket must attempt to transmit the data. If the socket discards the queued data to allow the close subroutine to complete successfully, it violates its promise to deliver data reliably. Discarding data can cause naive processes, which depend upon the implicit semantics of the close call, to work unreliably in a network environment. However, if sockets block until all data has been transmitted successfully, in some communication domains a close subroutine may never complete.

The socket layer compromises in an effort to address this problem and maintain the semantics of the close subroutine. In normal operation, closing a socket causes any queued but unaccepted connections to be discarded. If the socket is in a connected state, a disconnect is initiated. The socket is marked to indicate that a file descriptor is no longer referencing it, and the close operation returns successfully. When the disconnect request completes, the network support notifies the socket layer, and the socket resources are reclaimed. The network layer may attempt to transmit any data queued in the socket's send buffer, although this is not guaranteed.

Alternatively, a socket may be marked explicitly to force the application program to linger when closing until pending data are flushed and the connection has shutdown. This option is marked in the socket data structure using the setsockopt subroutine with the SO_LINGER option. The setsockopt subroutine, using the linger option, takes a linger structure. When an application program indicates that a socket is to linger, it also specifies a duration for the lingering period. If the lingering period expires before the disconnect is completed, the socket layer forcibly shuts down the socket, discarding any data still pending.

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