This section provides step-by-step instructions for setting up the root domain with DES authentication using the NIS+ command set.
Note: Perform this task with the NIS+ installation scripts as described in Using NIS+ Setup Scripts rather than with the NIS+ command set described in this section. The methods described in this section should be used only by those administrators who are very familiar with NIS+ and who require some nonstandard features or configurations not provided by the installation scripts.
See Configuration Worksheets, for worksheets that you can use to plan your NIS+ namespace.
This task describes how to set up the root domain with the root master server running at security level 2 (the normal level).
Setting up the root domain involves three major tasks:
In setting up the root domain, you must specify certain security parameters before you create the root directory. Other security parameters are set after the root directory is created. To make the root domain easier to set up, this section separates these tasks into individual steps.
The steps in this section apply to both a standard NIS+ root domain and an NIS-compatible root domain. There are, however, some important differences. The NIS+ daemon for an NIS-compatible domain must be started with the -Y option, which allows the root master server to answer requests from NIS clients.
An NIS-compatible domain also requires read rights to the passwd table for the nobody class, which allows NIS clients to access the information stored in the table's passwd column. This is accomplished with the -Y option to the nissetup command. The standard NIS+ domain version uses the same command but without the -Y option.
The procedure describes each step in detail and provides related information. For those who do not need detailed instructions, a summary listing of the necessary commands is provided on Root Domain Setup Summary.
NIS+ provides preset security defaults for the root domain. The default security level is level 2.
- Operational networks should always be run at security level 2. Security levels 0 and 1 are for setup and testing purposes only. Do not run an operational network at level 0 or 1.
- Because the NIS+ security system is complex, review the security-related chapters of this book before setting up your NIS+ environment.
Before proceeding, make sure that
To complete the following procedure, you need to know
Set up a root domain using the Web-based System Manager, the System Management Interface Tool (SMIT) smit nisplus fast path, or the following procedure:
Note: The examples in these steps use rootmaster as the root master server name and wiz.com. as the root domain name.
Attention: Domains and hosts should not have the same name. For example, if you have a sales domain you should not have a machine named sales. Similarly, if you have a machine named home, you do not want to create a domain named home. This caution applies to subdomains; for example, if you have a machine named west, you do not want to create a sales.west.myco.com subdirectory.
If the domain name is not correct, change it. The following example changes the domain name of the root master server from strange.domain to wiz.com. When you change or establish a domain name, make sure that the it has at least two labels; for example, wiz.com instead of wiz. For more detailed instructions, see Specifying a Domain Name After Installation.
rootmaster# domainname strange.domain rootmaster# domainname wiz.com rootmaster# chypdom -I wiz.com.
Note: Do not include a trailing dot for the domain name command argument. The domainname command is not an NIS+ command and does not follow the NIS+ convention of appending a dot to domain names.
rootmaster# stopsrc -s keyserv rootmaster# startsrc -s keyserv
rootmaster# stopsrc -g nisplus rootmaster# rm -rf /var/nis/*
If running in NIS-compatibility mode, also enter the following command:
rootmaster# rm -rf /var/yp/ypdomain
Files left in /var/nis or directory objects stored by the cache manager are now completely erased so they cannot conflict with the new information generated during this setup process. If you have stored any admin scripts in /var/nis, you may want to temporarily store them elsewhere, until you finish setting up the root domain.
Although you do not actually create the admin group until later in this procedure, you must identify it now. Identifying it now ensures that the root domain's org_dir directory object, groups_dir directory object, and all its table objects are assigned the proper default group when they are created. To name the admin group, set the value of the environment variable NIS_GROUP to the name of the root domain's admin group.
rootmaster# NIS_GROUP=admin.wiz.com. rootmaster# export NIS_GROUP
rootmaster# nisinit -r
A directory with the name /var/nis/data is created, containing a file named root.object.
rootmaster# ls -l /var/nis/data -rw-rw-rw- 1 root other 384 date root.object
The root.object file is not the root directory object; it is a file that NIS+ uses to describe the root of the namespace for internal purposes. The NIS+ root directory object is created later in this procedure. Other files are then added beneath the directory.
Attention: Do not rename the /var/nis or /var/nis/data directories or any of the files in these directories that were created by nisinit or any of the other NIS+ setup procedures.
- See mk_nisd to determine whether you should use the -I, -B, or -N option before continuing with this procedure.
- Use the -y option if you are setting up the root domain in NIS-compatibility mode.
For NIS compatibility with DNS forwarding, use:
rootmaster# mk_nisd -y -b [-I|-B|-N]
For NIS compatibility without DNS forwarding, use:
rootmaster# mk_nisd -y [-I|-B|-N]
To start the NIS+ daemon without NIS compatibility or DNS forwarding, use:
rootmaster# mk_nisd [-I|-B|-N]
rootmaster# ls -l /var/nis/data -rw-rw-rw- 1 root other 384 date root.object -rw-rw-rw- 1 root other 124 date root.dir
rootmaster# nisls -l wiz.com. wiz.com.:
rootmaster# niscat -o wiz.com. Object Name : wiz Owner : rootmaster.wiz.com. Group : admin.wiz.com. Domain : com. Access Rights : r---rmcdrmcdr--- . . .
Note that the root directory object provides full (read, modify, create, and destroy) rights to both the owner and the group, while providing only read access to the world and nobody classes. (If your directory object does not provide these rights, change them using the nischmod command.)
rootmaster# ps -ef | grep rpc.nisd root 1081 1 61 16:43:33 ? 0:01 rpc.nisd -S 0 root 1087 1004 11 16:44:09 pts/1 0:00 grep rpc.nisd
Standard NIS+ only:
rootmaster# /usr/lib/nis/nissetup -Y
Each object added by the utility is listed in the output:
rootmaster# /usr/lib/nis/nissetup org_dir.wiz.com. created groups_dir.wiz.com. created auto_master.org_dir.wiz.com. created auto_home.org_dir.wiz.com. created bootparams.org_dir.wiz.com. created cred.org_dir.wiz.com. created ethers.org_dir.wiz.com. created group.org_dir.wiz.com. created hosts.org_dir.wiz.com. created mail_aliases.org_dir.wiz.com. created sendmailvars.org_dir.wiz.com. created client_info.org_dir.wiz.com. created netmasks.org_dir.wiz.com. created netgroup.org_dir.wiz.com. created networks.org_dir.wiz.com. created passwd.org_dir.wiz.com. created protocols.org_dir.wiz.com. created rpc.org_dir.wiz.com. created services.org_dir.wiz.com. created timezone.org_dir.wiz.com. created
The -Y option creates the same tables and subdirectories as for a standard NIS+ domain, but assigns the nobody class read rights to the passwd table so requests from NIS clients (which are unauthenticated) can access the encrypted password in that column.
Use nisls to verify the root directory now has two subdirectories, as follows:
rootmaster# nisls wiz.com. wiz.com.: org_dir groups_dir
You can use the niscat -o command to examine the object properties of the subdirectories and tables.
rootmaster# nisaddcred des DES principal name: email@example.com Adding key pair for firstname.lastname@example.org (rootmaster.wiz.com.). Enter login password: Wrote secret key into /etc/.rootkey
If you enter a password that is different from the server's root password, a warning message displays and you are prompted to repeat the password:
Enter login password: nisaddcred: WARNING: password differs from login password. Retype password:
If you retype the same password, NIS+ still creates the credential. The new password is stored in /etc/.rootkey and used by the keyserver when it starts. To immediately use the new password, run keylogin -r, as described in Administering NIS+ Credentials.
If you prefer to use your login password, press Control-c and start the sequence over. If you were to simply retype your login password as encouraged by the server, you would get the following error message, which is designed for another purpose and could be confusing.
nisaddcred: WARNING: password differs from login password. Retype password: nisaddcred: password incorrect. nisaddcred: unable to create credential.
As a result of this step, the root server's private and public keys are stored in the root domain's cred table (cred.org_dir.wiz.com.) and its secret key is stored in /etc/.rootkey. You can verify the existence of its credentials in the cred table by using the niscat command. Since the default domain name is wiz.com., you do not have to enter the cred table's fully qualified name; the org_dir suffix is sufficient. You can locate the root master's credential by using the niscat command to look for its secure RPC netname. In the following example, rootmaster is the machine name of the root master server.
niscat cred.org_dir.wiz.com rootmaster
rootmaster# nisgrpadm -c admin.wiz.com. Group admin.wiz.com. created.
This step only creates the group--it does not identify its members. To observe the object properties of the group, use niscat -o, appending groups_dir in the group's name.
rootmaster# niscat -o admin.groups_dir.wiz.com. Object Name : admin Owner : rootmaster.wiz.com. Group : admin.wiz.com. Domain : groups_dir.wiz.com. Access Rights : ----rmcdr---r--- Time to Live : 1:0:0 Object Type : GROUP Group Flags : Group Members :
rootmaster# nisgrpadm -a admin.wiz.com. rootmaster.wiz.com. Added rootmaster.wiz.com. to group admin.wiz.com.
To verify that this step was successful, use the nisgrpadm command with the -l option (see Administering NIS+ Groups).
Note: With group-related commands such as nisgrpadm, you do not have to include the groups_dir subdirectory in the name. The group-related commands are "targeted" at the groups_dir subdirectory.
rootmaster# nisgrpadm -l admin.wiz.com. Group entry for admin.wiz.com. group: Explicit members: rootmaster.wiz.com. No implicit members No recursive members No explicit nonmembers No implicit nonmembers No recursive nonmembers
Normally, directory objects are created by an NIS+ principal that already has DES credentials. In this case, however, the root master server could not acquire DES credentials until after it created the cred table (since there was no parent domain in which to store its credentials). As a result, three directory objects--root, org_dir, and groups_dir--do not have a copy of the root master server's public key. (You can verify this by using the niscat -o command with any of the directory objects. Look for the public key field. Instructions are provided in Administering NIS+ Directories.
To propagate the root master server's public key from the root domain's cred table to those three directory objects, use the /usr/lib/nis/nisupdkeys utility for each directory object.
rootmaster# /usr/lib/nis/nisupdkeys wiz.com. rootmaster# /usr/lib/nis/nisupdkeys org_dir.wiz.com. rootmaster# /usr/lib/nis/nisupdkeys groups_dir.wiz.com.
After each instance, a confirmation message similar to the following displays:
Fetch Public key for server rootmaster.wiz.com. netname = 'email@example.com.' Updating rootmaster.wiz.com.'s public key. Public key:
Use niscat -o to see the following entry in the public key field:
Public key: Diffie-Hellman (192 bits)
rootmaster# startsrc -s nis_cachemgr
The cache manager maintains a local cache of location information for an NIS+ client (in this case, the root master server). It obtains its initial set of information from the client's cold-start file and downloads it into a file named NIS_SHARED_DIRCACHE in /var/nis.
Once the cache manager has been started, you have to restart it only if you have explicitly killed it. You do not have to restart it if you reboot, because the NIS_COLD_START file in /var/nis starts it automatically when the client is rebooted. For more information about the NIS+ cache manager, see Administering NIS+ Directories.
rootmaster# stopsrc -s rpc.nisd
Standard NIS+ domain only
rootmaster# startsrc -s rpc.nisd
For an NIS-compatible root domain, be sure to use the -Y flag:
rootmaster# startsrc -s rpc.nisd -a "-Y"
For NIS-compatible NIS+ domain and DNS forwarding, use the -Y and -B flags:
rootmaster# startsrc -s rpc.nisd -a "-Y -B"
Attention: Operational networks should always be run at security level 2. Security levels 0 and 1 are for setup and testing purposes only. Do not run an operational network at level 0 or 1 or you will be running in an unsecured NIS+ environment.
Use the nismkuser command.
nisaddcred -p SecureRPC-netname -P principal-name des
The SecureRPC-netname consists of the prefix unix followed by your UID, the symbol @, and your domain name, but without a trailing dot. The principal-name is the same as for local credentials: your login name followed by your domain name, with a trailing dot.
rootmaster# nisaddcred -p firstname.lastname@example.org -P topadmin.wiz.com. des Adding key pair for email@example.com (topadmin.wiz.com.). Enter login password:
If after entering your login password you get a password differs from login password warning and yet the password you entered is your correct login password, ignore the message. (The message does not appear if you have no user password information stored in the /etc/passwd file.)
rootmaster# nisaddcred -p 33355 -P miyoko.wiz.com. local rootmaster# nisaddcred -p firstname.lastname@example.org -P miyoko.wiz.com. des Adding key pair for email@example.com (miyoko.wiz.com.). Enter login password:
rootmaster# nistbladm -D owner=miyoko.wiz.com. name=miyoko uid=33355 \ gcos=miyoko home=/home/miyoko shell=/bin/tcsh passwd.org_dir rootmaster# nisaddent -a -f /etc/passwd.xfr passwd rootmaster# nisaddent -a -f /etc/shadow.xfr shadow rootmaster# nisaddcred -p 33355 -P miyoko.wiz.com. local rootmaster# nisaddcred -p firstname.lastname@example.org -P miyoko.wiz.com. des Adding key pair for email@example.com (miyoko.wiz.com.). Enter miyoko's login password: nisaddcred: WARNING: password differs from login passwd. Retype password: rootmaster# nischown miyoko.wiz.com. '[name=miyoko],passwd.org_dir'
In this case, the first instance of nisaddent populates the passwd table--except for the password column. The second instance populates the shadow column. Each administrator can later change his or her network password using the chkey command. Administering NIS+ Credentials describes how to do this.
You do not have to wait for the other administrators to change their dummy passwords to perform this step. Use the nisgrpadm command with the -a option. The first argument is the group name, the remaining arguments are the names of the administrators. This example adds two administrators, topadmin and miyoko, to the admin.wiz.com. group:
rootmaster# nisgrpadm -a admin.wiz.com. topadmin.wiz.com. miyoko.wiz.com. Added topadmin.wiz.com. to group admin.wiz.com. Added miyoko.wiz.com. to group admin.wiz.com.
The following table shows a summary of the steps required to set up a root domain. Table entries are simplified. Refer to the more thorough task descriptions for options, exceptions, and messages.
|Setting Up a Root Domain: Command Summary|
|Log in as root user to rootmaster.||
rootmaster% su Password:
|Check domain name||
|Remove leftover NIS+ material.||
rm -rf /var/nis*
If running in NIS-compatible mode, also remove NIS domain:
rm -rf /var/yp/ypdomain
|Name the admin group.||
NIS_GROUP=admin.wiz.com.; \ export NIS_GROUP
|Initialize the root master.
[NIS-compatibility with DNS forwarding only] Start daemon with -Y -B, -S 0.
[NIS+ Only] Start daemon with -S 0.
nisinit -r # startsrc -s rpc.nisd -a "-Y -B -S 0"
startsrc -s rpc.nisd -a "-S 0"
|Create org_dir, groups_dir, tables.||
|Create DES credentials for root master.||
nisaddcred des Enter login password:
|Create admin group.||
nisgrpadm -c admin.wiz.com.
|Assign full group rights to root directory||
nischmod g+rmcd wiz.com.
|Add root master to admin group.||
nisgrpadm -a admin.wiz.com. \ rootmaster.wiz.com.
|Update root directory's keys.||
|Update org_dir's keys.||
|Update groups_dir's keys.||
|Start NIS+ cache manager||
startsrc -s nis_cachemgr
|Kill existing NIS+ daemon.||
stopsrc -s rpc.nisd
|Restart the NIS+ daemon.
Use -y for NIS compatibility and -b for DNS forwarding.
mk_nisd [-y] [-b][-I|-B|-N]
|Add your LOCAL credentials.||
nisaddcred -p 11177 \ -P topadmin.wiz.com. local
|Add your DES credentials.||
nisaddcred -p firstname.lastname@example.org \ -P topadmin.wiz.com. des Enter login password:
|Add credentials for other admins. Add other admins to admin group.||
nisaddcred ... # nisgrpadm -a admin.wiz.com. member ...