Your system can have a display, keyboard, and mouse attached to it, in addition to a wide range of other available options. Examples of these options are tape drives, printers, terminals, and plotters. The operating system controls the devices attached to your system.
This section discusses the following:
The following illustration shows one possible office arrangement.
Note: Your system may not look exactly like any of the illustrations given in this guide.
The following illustration shows some system features.
If you are on a network, you may not have a system unit on your desk. In this case, you probably have a terminal that only has a power switch.
The terminal is the device you use to interact with your computer system. It is composed of a display (or monitor), a keyboard, and sometimes a mouse. There are several types of terminals: dumb terminals, smart terminals, and graphics terminals. The following illustration shows a typical terminal setup.
A dumb terminal (or nonprogrammable terminal) cannot do any processing on its own. This means the terminal itself cannot run programs but has another computer do its processing while it displays the results. This type of terminal is common in multiuser or networked systems.
A smart terminal (or programmable terminal) does some processing on its own and sometimes has a device (a disk drive, for example) for reading and writing files. This type of terminal is also common in multiuser or networked systems.
A graphics terminal is a smart terminal with special hardware that allows it to display pictures. If you work in a windows interface, you need a special type of graphics terminal known as an X terminal.
The various keys on the keyboard allow you to enter data and control the cursor location. Keyboards for different countries can have their keys engraved with their particular language. Japanese keyboards also have more keys. There are several kinds of keyboard designs. This section explains how keyboards work in general, and discusses the various keys and their use. The following illustration shows a possible keyboard layout.
The keyboard has four sections:
|function keys||The operating system controls these multipurpose keys.|
|typewriter keys||The software, usually a keyboard driver, controls these keys which are similar to those on a standard typewriter.|
|cursor keys||These keys move the cursor on the screen and do programmed control functions. The application program that you use controls their movement and functions.|
|numeric keypad||Similar to a calculator, the keypad is used to enter numbers.|
The functions of each keyboard depend on the software you use.
Certain keys or combinations of keys make working in a command line interface easier.
|Enter key||Use the Enter key to tell the system that you have finished entering text and that it can start running the command. You can correct the command line anytime before you press the Enter key.|
|Spacebar||Use the Spacebar to add spaces to the command line when needed.|
|Tab key||Use the Tab key to insert up to eight spaces until the next tab stop.|
|Backspace key||Use the Backspace key to erase the character preceding the cursor on the command line.|
The control (Ctrl) key is used in combination with other keys to make control characters. You press and hold the Ctrl key, and then quickly press another key. Some control keys appear on the display; others are invisible.
The following is a list of useful key sequences and their functions:
|Ctrl-C||Interrupts most programs. You will see ^C on the screen.|
|Ctrl-Z||Suspends most programs. You will see ^Z on the screen.|
|Ctrl-D||End-of-file character used for logging out and for terminating file input. You will see ^D on the screen.|
|Ctrl-\||Quits program and creates a file named core that is used for debugging. You will see ^\ on the screen.|
|Ctrl-W||Erases the word preceding the cursor.|
|Ctrl-U||Erases the entire command line.|
|Ctrl-S||Stops the output of a program from running off the bottom of the screen.|
|Ctrl-Q||Resumes the output of a program stopped by Ctrl-S.|
Though rarely used, in some instances the escape (Esc) key is also used in combination with other keys to make control characters. You press and release the Esc key, and then press another key.
Some characters on your keyboard are referred to with more than one name. The following is a listing of some key names with their nicknames:
|!||Exclamation mark, bang|
|#||Pound sign, crosshatch|
|*||Asterisk, star, splat|
|-||Hyphen, minus, minus sign|
|/||Slash, forward slash|
|<||Less-than sign, left angled bracket|
|>||Greater-than sign, right angled bracket|
||||Vertical bar, vertical line, pipe|
|?||Question mark, hook|
|'||Single quote, tick|
|`||Backquote, back tick|
The mouse allows you to move the pointer quickly to all areas of your screen. You use the mouse to tell the AIX Common Desktop Environment or AIXwindows what you want to do. The mouse allows you to manipulate icons, menus, and windows. The following illustration shows a three-button and a two-button mouse.
The mouse most commonly used with AIX has three buttons. Each button provides a different function. If you have a two-button mouse, pressing both buttons at the same time is equivalent to pressing the middle button on a three-button mouse.
|left||Use the left mouse button for selecting and activating default actions and copying and pasting text.|
|middle||Use the middle mouse button for customized application programs.|
|right||Use the right mouse button for customized application programs.|
The following describes what you can do with the mouse.
Note: The specific mouse button to use depends on the application in which it is used.
To point to an object, move the mouse until the tip of the mouse pointer is on the object (icon, menu, window, or window selection). When you perform a command with the mouse, first point and then do one of the following: press and hold, click, double-click, drag, drag and drop, or rubber-band with the mouse buttons.
To press and hold, point to the object (icon, menu, or window), and then hold down the mouse button without moving the mouse.
To click, point to the object (icon, menu, window, or window selection), and then press and quickly release the mouse button without moving the mouse.
To double-click, point to the object (icon), and then quickly press the mouse button twice without moving the mouse.
Drag usually refers to moving windows and selecting menu options.
To drag a menu selection, point to the menu you want to display, and press and hold the mouse button. Slide (drag) the pointer to highlight the desired menu option, and release the button.
Drag-and-drop usually refers to icons. This action only functions in some applications.
To drag and drop, point to the icon, hold down the mouse button, and move (drag) the pointer (while still holding down the mouse button) in the direction you want to move the object. When the object is where you want it, release (drop) the mouse button.
Rubber-banding usually refers to toggling (also referred to as selecting and deselecting) an icon's selection state and is used for manipulating a group of icons. Toggling refers to selecting an icon if it is currently unselected or deselecting an icon if it is currently selected. This action only functions in some applications.
To rubber-band, point to a position near the icon or icons to toggle (not touching any part of the icon or its title). Press and hold the mouse button, and drag the pointer. A rubber-band box is displayed, which you "stretch" to enclose the icons you want. When you release the mouse button, all icons inside or touching the rubber-band are toggled.
The following illustration shows rubber-banding.
When AIXwindows starts, an X -shaped pointer appears at the center of the screen. As you move the mouse on your desktop, the pointer on the screen moves correspondingly.
The pointer shape changes according to its location. For example, when the pointer is directly over the root window (the backdrop behind all windows), the pointer has an X shape. When the mouse points inside a terminal window, the pointer changes to an I shape. A description and illustration of pointer shapes follows.
An arrow pointing to the upper-left corner is the general-purpose pointer used in most window areas for single-object selection and activation.
An arrow pointing to the upper-right corner indicates a pending menu action. This shape indicates that a menu is popped up or pulled down and waiting for a menu item to be activated or the menu to be removed.
The caution pointer indicates action is expected in another area before input can be given to the current area and that the pointer has no effect in the area where the caution pointer appears. While the caution pointer is active, all mouse button and keyboard events are ignored in the current area.
Four-Directional Arrow Pointer
The four-directional arrow pointer indicates a move operation is in progress. During a move operation, the object, or an outline of the object, should move to track the location of the pointer.
The hourglass pointer, a working pointer, indicates that an action is in progress in the area and that the pointer has no effect in that area. While the hourglass pointer is active, all mouse-button and keyboard events are ignored in the area. The hourglass pointer can be used interchangeably with the watch pointer.
The I-beam pointer performs actions on the text and changes the location of the text-insertion cursor.
The resize pointer indicates a resizing position. The direction of the arrow in the pointer indicates the direction of increasing size. The horizontal and vertical pointers indicate that the window is changed in either the horizontal or vertical direction. The diagonal pointers indicate that the window is changed in both the horizontal and vertical directions simultaneously. The pointer that appears depends on the resize operation you do.
The sighting pointer is used to make precise position selections. For example, in a drawing program, it may be used to indicate a pixel to fill or the connecting points of lines.
The watch pointer, also called a working pointer, indicates that an action is in progress in the area and that the pointer has no effect in that area. While the watch pointer is active, all mouse-button and keyboard events are ignored in the area. The watch pointer can be used interchangeably with the hourglass pointer.
The X pointer indicates when the pointer is outside any application area.