Managing Shared Disks
- Access Control List. A list that defines who has permission to
access certain services; that is, for whom a server may perform certain
tasks. This is usually a list of principals with the type of access
assigned to each.
- An adapter is a mechanism for attaching parts. For example, an
adapter could be a part that electrically or physically connects a device to a
computer or to another device. In the SP system, network connectivity
is supplied by various adapters, some optional, that can provide connection to
I/O devices, networks of workstations, and mainframe networks.
Ethernet, FDDI, token-ring, HiPPI, SCSI, FCS, and ATM are examples of adapters
that can be used as part of an SP system.
- A character or group of characters that identifies a register, a device, a
particular part of storage, or some other data source or destination.
- A distributed file system that provides authentication services as part of
its file system creation.
- Abbreviation for Advanced Interactive Executive, IBM's licensed
version of the UNIX operating system. AIX is particularly suited to
support technical computing applications, including high function graphics and
floating point computations.
- Application Programming Interface. A set of programming functions
and routines that provide access between the Application layer of the OSI
seven-layer model and applications that want to use the network. It is
a software interface.
- The use to which a data processing system is put; for example, a
payroll application, an airline reservation application.
- application data
- The data that is produced using an application program.
- Address Resolution Protocol.
- Asynchronous Transfer Mode. (See TURBOWAYS 100 ATM
- The process of validating the identity of either a user of a service or
the service itself. The process of a principal proving the authenticity
of its identity.
- The process of obtaining permission to access resources or perform
tasks. In SP security services, authorization is based on the principal
identifier. The granting of access rights to a principal.
- authorization file
- A type of ACL (access control list) used by the IBM AIX remote commands
and the IBM PSSP Sysctl and Hardmon components.
- batch processing
- (1) The processing of data or the accomplishment of jobs accumulated in
advance in such a manner that each accumulation thus formed is processed or
accomplished in the same run. (2) The processing of data accumulating
over a period of time. (3) Loosely, the execution of computer programs
serially. (4) Computer programs executed in the background.
- The AIX Base Operating System.
- call home function
- The ability of a system to call the IBM support center and open a PMR to
have a repair scheduled.
- Common Desktop Environment. A graphical user interface for
- charge feature
- An optional feature for either software or hardware for which there is a
- Command Line Interface.
- (1) A function that requests services from a server and makes them
available to the user. (2) A term used in an environment to identify a
machine that uses the resources of the network.
- Centralized Management Interface provides a series of SMIT menus and
dialogues used for defining and querying the SP system configuration.
- Concurrent Virtual Shared Disk
- A virtual shared disk that can be concurrently accessed by more than one
- A communication process that takes place without first establishing a
- connectionless network
- A network in which the sending logical node must have the address of the
receiving logical node before information interchange can begin. The
packet is routed through nodes in the network based on the destination address
in the packet. The originating source does not receive an
acknowledgment that the packet was received at the destination.
- control workstation
- A single point of control allowing the administrator or operator to
monitor and manage the SP system using the IBM AIX Parallel System Support
- A protocol message, or part thereof, containing a ticket and an
authenticator supplied by a client and used by a server to verify the
- Communication subsystem.
- A process, not associated with a particular user, that performs
system-wide functions such as administration and control of networks,
execution of time-dependent activities, line printer spooling and so
- Direct Access Storage Device. Storage for input/output data.
- Distributed Computing Environment.
- distributed file system. A subset of the IBM Distributed Computing
- Domain Name Service. A hierarchical name service which maps high
level machine names to IP addresses.
- Error Notification Object
- An object in the SDR that is matched with an error log entry. When
an error log entry occurs that matches the Notification Object, a
user-specified action is taken.
- Enterprise Systems Connection. The ESCON channel connection allows
the RS/6000 to communicate directly with a host System/390; the host
operating system views the system unit as a control unit.
- (1) Ethernet is the standard hardware for TCP/IP local area networks in
the UNIX marketplace. It is a 10-megabit per second baseband type LAN
that allows multiple stations to access the transmission medium at will
without prior coordination, avoids contention by using carrier sense and
deference, and resolves contention by collision detection (CSMA/CD).
(2) A passive coaxial cable whose interconnections contain devices or
components, or both, that are all active. It uses CSMA/CD technology to
provide a best-effort delivery system.
- Ethernet network
- A baseband LAN with a bus topology in which messages are broadcast on a
coaxial cabling using the carrier sense multiple access/collision detection
(CSMA/CD) transmission method.
- In Event Management, the notification that an expression evaluated to
true. This evaluation occurs each time an instance of a resource
variable is observed.
- Programmed dialogue with interactive programs.
- In Event Management, the relational expression between a resource variable
and other elements (such as constants or the previous value of an instance of
the variable) that, when true, generates an event. An example of an
expression is X < 10 where X represents the resource variable
percentage of total free paging space). When the expression is true,
that is, when the total free paging space is observed to be less than 10%, the
Event Management subsystem generates an event to notify the appropriate
- Also called fallover, the sequence of events when a primary or server
machine fails and a secondary or backup machine assumes the primary
workload. This is a disruptive failure with a short recovery
- fall back
- Also called fallback, the sequence of events when a primary or server
machine takes back control of its workload from a secondary or backup
- Fiber Distributed Data Interface.
- First Failure Data Capture.
- Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
- An American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard for
100-megabit-per-second LAN using optical fiber cables. An FDDI local
area network (LAN) can be up to 100 km (62 miles) and can include up to 500
system units. There can be up to 2 km (1.24 miles) between
system units and concentrators.
- A set of related records treated as a unit, for example, in stock control,
a file could consist of a set of invoices.
- file name
- A CMS file identifier in the form of 'filename filetype
filemode' (like: TEXT DATA A).
- file server
- A centrally located computer that acts as a storehouse of data and
applications for numerous users of a local area network.
- File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
- The Internet protocol (and program) used to transfer files between
hosts. It is an application layer protocol in TCP/IP that uses TELNET
and TCP protocols to transfer bulk-data files between machines or
- First Failure Data Capture (FFDC)
- A set of utilities used for recording persistent records of failures and
significant software incidents. It provides a means of associating
failures to one another, thus allowing software to link effects of a failure
to their causes and thereby facilitating discovery of the root cause of a
- foreign host
- Any host on the network other than the local host.
- File transfer protocol.
- An intelligent electronic device interconnecting dissimilar networks and
providing protocol conversion for network compatibility. A gateway
provides transparent access to dissimilar networks for nodes on either
network. It operates at the session presentation and application
- High Availability Cluster Multi-Processing for AIX.
- High Availability Control Workstation function, based on HACMP, provides
for a backup control workstation for the SP system.
- Hardware Management Console (HMC)
- The IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries is an
installation and service support processor that runs only the HMC
software. For an IBM pSeries 690 server to run the PSSP
software, an HMC is required with a network connection to the PSSP control
workstation . The HMC provides the following functions for the p690
- Creating and maintaining a multiple partition environment
- Detecting, reporting, and storing changes in hardware conditions
- Acting as a focal point for service representatives to determine an
appropriate service strategy
- Hashed Shared Disk (HSD)
- The data striping device for the IBM Virtual Shared Disk. The
device driver lets application programs stripe data across physical disks in
multiple IBM Virtual Shared Disks, thus reducing I/O bottlenecks.
- help key
- In the SP graphical interface, the key that gives you access to the SP
graphical interface help facility.
- High Availability Cluster Multi-Processing
- An IBM facility to cluster nodes or components to provide high
availability by eliminating single points of failure.
- High Performance Parallel Interface. RS/6000 units can attach to a
HiPPI network as defined by the ANSI specifications. The HiPPI channel
supports burst rates of 100 Mbps over dual simplex cables; connections
can be up to 25 km in length as defined by the standard and can be extended
using third-party HiPPI switches and fiber optic extenders.
- home directory
- The directory associated with an individual user.
- A computer connected to a network, and providing an access method to that
network. A host provides end-user services.
- Hardware Management Console.
- instance vector
- Obsolete term for resource identifier.
- Intermediate Switch Board
- Switches mounted in the switch expansion frame.
- A specific inter-network consisting of large national backbone networks
such as APARANET, MILNET, and NSFnet, and a myriad of regional and campus
networks all over the world. The network uses the TCP/IP protocol
- Internet Protocol (IP)
- (1) A protocol that routes data through a network or interconnected
networks. IP acts as an interface between the higher logical layers and
the physical network. This protocol, however, does not provide error
recovery, flow control, or guarantee the reliability of the physical
network. IP is a connectionless protocol. (2) A protocol used to
route data from its source to it destination in an Internet
- IP address
- A 32-bit address assigned to devices or hosts in an IP internet that maps
to a physical address. The IP address is composed of a network and host
- Intermediate Switch Board.
- A service for authenticating users in a network environment.
- The core portion of the UNIX operating system which controls the resources
of the CPU and allocates them to the users. The kernel is
memory-resident, is said to run in "kernel mode" and is protected from
user tampering by the hardware.
- Kernel Low-Level Application Programming Interface (KLAPI)
- KLAPI provides transport service for communication using the SP
- (1) Acronym for Local Area Network, a data network located on the
user's premises in which serial transmission is used for direct data
communication among data stations. (2) Physical network technology that
transfers data a high speed over short distances. (3) A network in
which a set of devices is connected to another for communication and that can
be connected to a larger network.
- Low-level Communication API.
- local host
- The computer to which a user's terminal is directly connected.
- log database
- A persistent storage location for the logged information.
- log event
- The recording of an event.
- log event type
- A particular kind of log event that has a hierarchy associated with
- The writing of information to persistent storage for subsequent analysis
by humans or programs.
- Low-level Communication API (LAPI)
- A low-level (low overhead) message passing protocol that uses a one-sided
active message style interface to transfer messages between processes.
LAPI is an IBM proprietary interface designed to exploit the SP switch
- To use a pattern of characters to control retention or elimination of
portions of another pattern of characters.
- A display of a list of available functions for selection by the
- Message Passing Interface (MPI)
- An industry standard message passing protocol that typically uses a
two-sided send-receive model to transfer messages between
- The graphical user interface for OSF, incorporating the X Window
System. Also called OSF/Motif.
- Message Passing Interface.
- Mean time between failure. This is a measure of reliability.
- Mean time to repair. This is a measure of serviceability.
- naive application
- An application with no knowledge of a server that fails over to another
server. Client to server retry methods are used to reconnect.
- An interconnected group of nodes, lines, and terminals. A network
provides the ability to transmit data to and receive data from other systems
- Network Interface Module (NIM)
- A process used by the Topology Services daemon to monitor each network
- Network File System. NFS allows different systems (UNIX or
non-UNIX), different architectures, or vendors connected to the same network,
to access remote files in a LAN environment as though they were local
- (1) Network Installation Management is provided with AIX to install AIX on
the nodes. (2) Network Interface Module is a process used by the
Topology Services daemon to monitor each network interface.
- NIM client
- An AIX system installed and managed by a NIM master. NIM supports
three types of clients:
- NIM master
- An AIX system that can install one or more NIM clients. An AIX
system must be defined as a NIM master before defining any NIM clients on that
system. A NIM master managers the configuration database containing the
information for the NIM clients.
- NIM object
- A representation of information about the NIM environment. NIM
stores this information as objects in the NIM database. The types of
- Network Information System.
- In a network, the point where one or more functional units interconnect
transmission lines. A computer location defined in a network.
The SP system can house several different types of nodes for both serial and
parallel processing. These node types can include thin nodes, wide
nodes, 604 high nodes, as well as other types of nodes both internal and
external to the SP frame.
- Node Switch Board
- Switches mounted on frames that contain nodes.
- Node Switch Board.
- Network Time Protocol.
- Object Data Manager. In AIX, a hierarchical object-oriented
database for configuration data.
- parallel environment
- A system environment where message passing or SP resource manager services
are used by the application.
- Parallel Environment
- A licensed IBM program used for message passing applications on the SP or
- parallel processing
- A multiprocessor architecture which allows processes to be allocated to
tightly coupled multiple processors in a cooperative processing environment,
allowing concurrent execution of tasks.
- (1) A variable that is given a constant value for a specified application
and that may denote the application. (2) An item in a menu for which
the operator specifies a value or for which the system provides a value when
the menu is interpreted. (3) A name in a procedure that is used to
refer to an argument that is passed to the procedure. (4) A particular
piece of information that a system or application program needs to process a
- See system partition.
- Practical Extraction and Report Language.
- The primary window for each SP Perspectives application, so called because
it provides a unique view of an SP system.
- A UNIX utility allowing the output of one command to be the input of
another. Represented by the | symbol. It is also referred to as
- Problem Management Report.
- Formerly Parallel Operating Environment, now Parallel Environment for
- (1) An end point for communication between devices, generally referring to
physical connection. (2) A 16-bit number identifying a particular TCP
or UDP resource within a given TCP/IP node.
- Obsolete term for expression.
- Primary node or machine
- (1) A device that runs a workload and has a standby device ready to assume
the primary workload if that primary node fails or is taken out of
service. (2) A node on the switch that initializes, provides diagnosis
and recovery services, and performs other operations to the switch
network. (3) In IBM Virtual Shared Disk function, when physical disks
are connected to two nodes (twin-tailed), one node is designated as the
primary node for each disk and the other is designated the secondary, or
backup, node. The primary node is the server node for IBM Virtual
Shared Disks defined on the physical disks under normal conditions. The
secondary node can become the server node for the disks if the primary node is
unavailable (off-line or down).
- Problem Management Report
- The number in the IBM support mechanism that represents a service incident
with a customer.
- (1) A unique, finite course of events defined by its purpose or by its
effect, achieved under defined conditions. (2) Any operation or
combination of operations on data. (3) A function being performed or
waiting to be performed. (4) A program in operation. For
example, a daemon is a system process that is always running on the
- A set of semantic and syntactic rules that defines the behavior of
functional units in achieving communication.
- Redundant array of independent disks.
- rearm expression
- In Event Management, an expression used to generate an event that
alternates with an original event expression in the following way: the
event expression is used until it is true, then the rearm expression is used
until it is true, then the event expression is used, and so on. The
rearm expression is commonly the inverse of the event expression (for example,
a resource variable is on or off). It can also be used with the event
expression to define an upper and lower boundary for a condition of
- rearm predicate
- Obsolete term for rearm expression.
- remote host
- See foreign host.
- In Event Management, an entity in the system that provides a set of
services. Examples of resources include hardware entities such as
processors, disk drives, memory, and adapters, and software entities such as
database applications, processes, and file systems. Each resource in
the system has one or more attributes that define the state of the
- resource identifier
- In Event Management, a set of elements, where each element is a name/value
pair of the form name=value, whose values uniquely identify the
copy of the resource (and by extension, the copy of the resource variable) in
- resource monitor
- A program that supplies information about resources in the system.
It can be a command, a daemon, or part of an application or subsystem that
manages any type of system resource.
- resource variable
- In Event Management, the representation of an attribute of a
resource. An example of a resource variable is
IBM.AIX.PagSp.%totalfree, which represents the
percentage of total free paging space.
IBM.AIX.PagSp specifies the resource name and
%totalfree specifies the resource attribute.
- Restricted Root Access (RRA)
- Restricted root access (RRA) limits the uses of the rsh and
rcp commands within PSSP software. When RRA is enabled, it
restricts root rsh and rcp authorizations from the nodes to
the control workstation, and from one node to another. However, control
workstation to node rsh and rcp access is still
- Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC), the technology for today's
high performance personal computers and workstations, was invented in
1975. Uses a small simplified set of frequently used instructions for
- rlogin (remote LOGIN)
- A service offered by Berkeley UNIX systems that allows authorized users of
one machine to connect to other UNIX systems across a network and interact as
if their terminals were connected directly. The rlogin software passes
information about the user's environment (for example, terminal type) to
the remote machine.
- Acronym for Remote Procedure Call, a facility that a client uses to have a
server execute a procedure call. This facility is composed of a library
of procedures plus an XDR.
- Restricted Root Access.
- A variant of RLOGIN command that invokes a command interpreter on a remote
UNIX machine and passes the command line arguments to the command interpreter,
skipping the LOGIN step completely. See also rlogin.
- Small Computer System Interface.
- Secondary node
- In IBM Virtual Shared Disk function, when physical disks are connected to
two nodes (twin-tailed), one node is designated as the primary node for each
disk and the other is designated as the secondary, or backup, node. The
secondary node acts as the server node for the IBM Virtual Shared disks
defined on the physical disks if the primary node is unavailable (off-line or
- (1) A function that provides services for users. A machine may run
client and server processes at the same time. (2) A machine that
provides resources to the network. It provides a network service, such
as disk storage and file transfer, or a program that uses such a
service. (3) A device, program, or code module on a network dedicated
to providing a specific service to a network. (4) On a LAN, a data
station that provides facilities to other data stations. Examples are
file server, print server, and mail server.
- The shell is the primary user interface for the UNIX operating
system. It serves as command language interpreter, programming
language, and allows foreground and background processing. There are
three different implementations of the shell concept: Bourne, C and
- Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)
- An input and output bus that provides a standard interface for the
attachment of various direct access storage devices (DASD) and tape drives to
- Small Computer Systems Interface Adapter (SCSI Adapter)
- An adapter that supports the attachment of various direct-access storage
devices (DASD) and tape drives to the RS/6000.
- The System Management Interface Toolkit is a set of menu driven utilities
for AIX that provides functions such as transaction login, shell script
creation, automatic updates of object database, and so forth.
- Simple Network Management Protocol. (1) An IP network management
protocol that is used to monitor attached networks and routers. (2) A
TCP/IP-based protocol for exchanging network management information and
outlining the structure for communications among network devices.
- (1) An abstraction used by Berkeley UNIX that allows an application to
access TCP/IP protocol functions. (2) An IP address and port number
pairing. (3) In TCP/IP, the Internet address of the host computer on
which the application runs, and the port number it uses. A TCP/IP
application is identified by its socket.
- standby node or machine
- A device that waits for a failure of a primary node in order to assume the
identity of the primary node. The standby machine then runs the
primary's workload until the primary is back in service.
- Shortened form of subnetwork.
- subnet mask
- A bit template that identifies to the TCP/IP protocol code the bits of the
host address that are to be used for routing for specific subnetworks.
- Any group of nodes that have a set of common characteristics, such as the
same network ID.
- A software component that is not usually associated with a user
command. It is usually a daemon process. A subsystem will
perform work or provide services on behalf of a user request or operating
- Software Update Protocol.
- switch capsule
- A group of SP frames consisting of a switched frame and its companion
- Secure System Command Execution Tool. An authenticated
client/server system for running commands remotely and in parallel.
- A BSD logging system used to collect and manage other subsystem's
- System Administrator
- The user who is responsible for setting up, modifying, and maintaining the
- system partition
- A group of nonoverlapping nodes on a switch chip boundary that act as a
logical SP system.
- Tape ARchive, is a standard UNIX data archive utility for storing data on
- Tool Command Language.
- Tool Command Language Extended.
- Acronym for Transmission Control Protocol, a stream communication protocol
that includes error recovery and flow control.
- Acronym for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, a suite of
protocols designed to allow communication between networks regardless of the
technologies implemented in each network. TCP provides a reliable
host-to-host protocol between hosts in packet-switched communications networks
and in interconnected systems of such networks. It assumes that the
underlying protocol is the Internet Protocol.
- Terminal Emulation Protocol, a TCP/IP application protocol that allows
interactive access to foreign hosts.
- An encrypted protocol message used to securely pass the identity of a user
from a client to a server.
- Tcl-based Tool Kit for X Windows.
- Tape Management Program Control Point.
- (1) Network technology that controls media access by passing a token
(special packet or frame) between media-attached machines. (2) A
network with a ring topology that passes tokens from one attaching device
(node) to another. (3) The IBM Token-Ring LAN connection allows the
RS/6000 system unit to participate in a LAN adhering to the IEEE 802.5
Token-Passing Ring standard or the ECMA standard 89 for Token-Ring, baseband
- An exchange between the user and the system. Each activity the
system performs for the user is considered a transaction.
- transceiver (transmitter-receiver)
- A physical device that connects a host interface to a local area network,
such as Ethernet. Ethernet transceivers contain electronics that apply
signals to the cable and sense collisions.
- To send data from one place and to receive the data at another
place. Synonymous with move.
- The sending of data from one place for reception elsewhere.
- TURBOWAYS 100 ATM Adapter
- An IBM high-performance, high-function intelligent adapter that provides
dedicated 100 Mbps ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) connection for
high-performance servers and workstations.
- User Datagram Protocol.
- UNIX operating system
- An operating system developed by Bell Laboratories that features
multiprogramming in a multiuser environment. The UNIX operating system
was originally developed for use on minicomputers, but has been adapted for
mainframes and microcomputers. Note: The AIX operating
system is IBM's implementation of the UNIX operating system.
- Anyone who requires the services of a computing system.
- User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
- (1) In TCP/IP, a packet-level protocol built directly on the Internet
Protocol layer. UDP is used for application-to-application programs
between TCP/IP host systems. (2) A transport protocol in the Internet
suite of protocols that provides unreliable, connectionless datagram
service. (3) The Internet Protocol that enables an application
programmer on one machine or process to send a datagram to an application
program on another machine or process.
- user ID
- A nonnegative integer, contained in an object of type uid_t, that
is used to uniquely identify a system user.
- Virtual Shared Disk, IBM
- The function that allows application programs executing at different nodes
of a system partition to access a raw logical volume as if it were local at
each of the nodes. In actuality, the logical volume is local at only
one of the nodes (the server node).
- (1) A configuration of input/output equipment at which an operator
works. (2) A terminal or microcomputer, usually one that is connected
to a mainframe or to a network, at which a user can perform
- X Window System
- A graphical user interface product.
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