# Glossary

## A

abduction The movement of a limb away from the median, or midline, of the body.
adduction The movement of a limb toward the median, or midline, of the body.
ambinocular vision The zone defined by the union of two shapes that define the right and left monocular visions. The entire field of vision that can be seen with both eyes.
angular  limitations The manikin's joint limitations.
anthropometry The study of proportional relationships between the shape, weight and size of body segments.

## B

binocular vision The zone defined by the intersection of the two shapes that define the right and left monocular visions. The zone that can be seen by both the right and left eyes.
blind cone The 3D graphical representation of the mathematical model bordering the eye's blind spot. Available for monocular vision only.
blind spot The area of the eye where the optic nerve is attached.

## C

center of gravity That point at the exact center of an object's mass.
central cone The 3D graphical representation used to create a model that represent the mathematical model of the central point.
central spot of vision Corresponds to the focus location. The end of the line of sight.
constraint The relationship of a manikin to its surrounding environment.
COG See center of gravity.

## D

degree(s) of freedom Each linear or rotary movement along or about a given axis. Manikin segments can have up to three DOFs.
DOF Degree(s) of freedom
dorsiflexion Ankle upward flexion movement

## E

elevation Shoulder abduction movement
eversion Ankle abduction movement
extension The act of straightening a limb at a joint.

## F

father product The product the manikin will be attached to in the specification tree. It can be the root product or any other product under the root.
flexion The act of bending a limb at a joint, thus forming an angle.
fovea The fovea of the eye is a small pit in the center of the retina that contains cones but no rods. When looking directly at a point, its image falls on the fovea. The fovea covers an angle of about 2 degrees. Visual acuity is normally greatest for images on the fovea.

## H

hyperextension Extending the extremity beyond anatomical position.

## L

lateral rotation The rotation of a body part away from the median, or midline, of the body.
left monocular vision The field of vision of the left eye only
line of sight Designed to facilitate the manipulation of the manikin's field of vision. It can be selected as any other segment of the manikin.
longitudinal axis The vertical axis perpendicular to the transverse plane that is dividing the body into superior and inferior portions.

## M

manikin A virtual human.
medial rotation The rotation of a body part toward the median, or midline, of the body.
monocular vision The field of vision from one eye only.

## P

peripheral cone The 3D graphical representation of the mathematical model bordering the human field of vision. The tip of the cone corresponds to the origin of the line of sight, i.e. the eyes.
plantar flexion Ankle flexion movement in the direction of the sole of the foot.
ponctum proximum The minimum accommodation distance or depth of vision; the nearest point that can be seen clearly.
ponctum remotum The maximum accommodation distance of the vision; the crystalline relax position for objects located from five meters to infinity.
postural score A function used to evaluate the manikin's posture.
posture The position of the whole manikin (global posture) or of parts of the manikin such as hand posture (local posture).
product tree Process/ Product/ Resource (PPR) tree. The PPR tree is a 2D view of the process.  It lists all the products and resources required to make a specific product.  It also lists, in hierarchical form, the actions required to perform the process that produces the product.
pronation The movement of the forearm so that the hand rests palm down on a surface.

## R

range of motion The range of translation and rotation of a joint for each of its degrees of freedom.
reach envelope A surface that represents all the possible surfaces the manikin can reach using only the arm and forearm. The motion starts at the shoulder.
right monocular vision The field of vision of the right eye only.
rotation A circular or turning movement of a body part, such as the back or head, around its axis.

## S

sagittal axis Horizontal axis in the anterior-posterior orientation. This axis is perpendicular to the coronal plane that is dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions.
segment A section of the manikin such as forearm, neck, thigh, ankle, etc.
shuttle An element representing the object to be fitted or unfitted from an assembly. It is composed of an axis and list of models. The shuttle can be moved about to simulate the fitting or unfitting of the object within the assembly.
specification tree Area of the document window reserved for viewing the design specifications of a part, presented in the form of a tree structure.
stereo vision The vision of both left and right eyes in two distinct windows displayed side by side. This type of display is use for special needs such as vision in a stereo head mounted display.
supination The movement of the forearm so that the hand rests palm up on a surface.

## T

transversal axis Horizontal axis in the left-right orientation. This axis is perpendicular to the sagittal plane that is dividing the body into left and right portions.

## U

ulnar deviation Wrist abduction movement (toward the ulna bone, on the little finger side of the arm).

## V

visual field The entire area that can be seen when the eye is forward, including peripheral vision.