AIX Frequently Asked Questions (Part 3 of 4)

Archive-name: aix-faq/part3
Last-modified: Jul 12, 1995
Version: 4.50

Frequently Asked Questions about AIX and the IBM RS/6000 Section 3

1.600: My named dies frequently, why?

Running on 3.2, named dies frequently on network's primary name server.

From: (John P. Eisenmenger)

Try the following:

     stopsrc -s named		# stop running named
     setenv MALLOCTYPE 3.1	# use 3.1 memory allocation algorithm
     /etc/named ...		# don't use smit to start named

You might be able to use startsrc/smit after setting MALLOCTYPE and get
the same effect, but I'm not sure.

[According to John, the problem is malloc() in the named code. He
 also suggests using Berkeley's bind, which he has ported and can be
 ftp'ed from, /archives/network/bind-4.8.3.tar.Z. -ed]

Two ptfs should fix this problem. Get U412332 and U414752.

Christophe Wolfhugel <> reports
that bind 4.9 works fine on AIX 3.2 and without MALLOCTYPE=3.1.

1.601: How do I trace ethernet packets on an AIX system?
From: (Andreas Siegert)

Do the following:

     iptrace -i en0 /tmp/ipt

The iptrace backgrounds.  Find its process id and kill it when you are
ready.  Then run

     ipreport -rns /tmp/ipt >/tmp/ipr

and look at the output.  The current version of Info does not document
the r, n and s options but they are quite useful for layering the output.

1.602 What is the authorized way of starting automount at boot time?
From: (Curt Finch)

I put this in my /etc/inittab:

automount:2:once:/usr/etc/automount -T -T -T -v >/tmp/ 2>&1

I hereby dub it authorized.

1.603: How do I set a tty port for both dial-in and dial-out?

Set the mode of the tty to be either 'shared' or 'delayed'. 

1.604: How to move or copy whole directory trees across a network

The following command will move an entire directory tree across a network 
while preserving permissions, uids and gids.

      $rsh RemoteHost "cd TargetDir; tar -cBf - ." | tar -xvBf -


The tar-create is rsh'd to the remote system and is written to
stdout (the pipe).

The local system is extracting the tar that is being read from
stdin (the pipe).

1.605: How can I send mail to hosts that cannot be pinged?
From:!dedourek (John DeDourek)

AIX 3.2 as shipped is configured to only send mail to mail addresses
which include a host name.  Many organizations use a mail address whose
"host name" part is not a host name (technically an MX name).  To change
the configuration of the AIX mailer, login as root.  Then edit the file
/etc/ to remove the comment marker ("# ") at the beginning of
the line which reads:
    # OK MX

Now rebuild the machine readable form of the configuration with
    sendmail -bz

and finally restart signal sendmail to load the new configuration by one
of the following:
     stopsrc -s sendmail
     startsrc -s sendmail
     kill -1 `cat /etc/`

1.606: How to configure dialup SLIP

IBM's WWW page <URL:> can lead you to a helpful document

From: (Christian Bode)

If you don't have problems with slattach you should have PTF 
bos.obj installed.  I assume that you did the right
ifconfig commands to setup your slip-device (for example sl0).

1. Create a group called slip.

2. Create a user slip with smit like this:
                                                     [Entry Fields]
* User NAME                                          [slip]
  ADMINISTRATIVE User?                                true
  User ID                                            []
  LOGIN user?                                         true
  PRIMARY group                                      [slip]
  Group SET                                          [slip]
  ADMINISTRATIVE groups                              [system]
  SU groups                                          [slip]
  HOME directory                                     [/home/slip]
  Initial PROGRAM                                    [/bin/sh]
  User INFORMATION                                   [SLIP-Dialup]
  Another user can SU to user?                        false
  User can RLOGIN?                                    true
  TRUSTED PATH?                                       nosak
  Valid TTYs                                         [/dev/tty1]
  AUDIT classes                                      []
  PRIMARY authentication method                      [SYSTEM]
  SECONDARY authentication method                    [NONE]
  Max FILE size                                      [2097151]
  Max CPU time                                       [-1]
  Max DATA segment                                   [262144]
  Max STACK size                                     [65536]
  Max CORE file size                                 [2048]
  Max physical MEMORY                                [65536]
  File creation UMASK                                [022]
  EXPIRATION date (MMDDhhmmyy)                       [0]

3. Create a tty with getty on it:
                                   Add a TTY
                                               [Entry Fields]
  TTY type                                     tty
  TTY interface                                rs232
  Description                                  Asynchronous Terminal
  Parent adapter                               sa0
* PORT number                                  [s1]
  BAUD rate                                    [38400]
  PARITY                                       [none]
  BITS per character                           [8]
  Number of STOP BITS                          [1]
  TERMINAL type                                [dumb]
  STATE to be configured at boot time          [available]
  DMA                                          on
  Read Trigger                                 0,1,2,3
  Transmit buffer count                        [16]
  Name of initial program to run               [/etc/getty]

  Note: The following attributes are only applicable if /etc/getty is
        specified as the initial program to run.

  Enable program?                              respawn
  Run level                                    2
  Enable LOGIN                                 share
  TIME before advancing to next port setting   [0]
  STTY attributes for RUN TIME                 [hupcl,cread,brkint>
  STTY attributes for LOGIN                    [hupcl,cread,echoe,>
  RUN shell activity manager                   no
  Optional LOGGER name                         []

4. Change the hardware characteristics so that it uses NO XON/XOFF handshake
   section 1.613 also talks about tty flow control.

5. Here is the the .profile for User slip to manage dialups

# SLIP login .profile
# Adapted from comp.unix.aix FAQ
# by Davide Migliavacca 
# Version 1.0 1995-05-16

# NOTE: script currently determines destination IP address from
# the DNS database (set the DNSDBFILE below). It should be
# possibile to work this out with lsdev/lsattr, so if someone
# manages to do it, please let me know.  Without device
# configuration support, you must have a DNS entry for each
# user (used as symbolic host address) and every user is tied
# to a particular port/address.  E.g: user fooslip is host
# fooslip (address This script works on the
# line which has as destination address
# ONLY. If the user logins on a different line, it won't work
# (in part at least).



# Search for a LCK-File for our tty if there is one

if [ -f /etc/locks/LCK..$TTYBASENAME ];
then SHPID=`cat /etc/locks/LCK..$TTYBASENAME`;
else {
/usr/bin/logger -t SLIP -p error "No LCK file for $TTYDEV"
 exit 64;

# Search for our own Shell to get the PID for checking against LCK-File

SH2PID=`ps -aef |
        sed -n -e "s/^ *$USER  *\([0-9][0-9]*\) .*-.*sh *$/\1/p`

# Is it the the same PID as in the LCK File so that we can start working ??
if [ $DEBUG -eq 1 ]
echo SH2PID: $SH2PID
if [ $SHPID -eq $SH2PID ]
#  remove the LCK-File because slattach does not like it.
   rm -rf /etc/locks/LCK..$TTYBASENAME
#  Add RTS/CTS Handshakeing to our own tty:=20
#  note dm: Better do it in /etc/rc (once and for all)! using addrts
#  stty add rts
#  Startup slattach. Slattach has to have mode 4755 to be started up !!!
#  note dm: this is quite a kludge. If someone finds a way to get the
#  destination IP address from the device configuration data (it should be 
#  possible, just terribly tedious), PLEASE let me know!
   IPADDRESS=`cat $DNSDBFILE | grep $USER | awk '{print $4}'`
   echo SLIP starting. Your IP address is $IPADDRESS
   /usr/sbin/slattach $TTYBASENAME
# Get the pid of slattch so that we can kill him later on.
   SLPID=`ps -aef |
 	sed -n -e "s/^ *$USER  *\([0-9][0-9]*\) .*-.*\/usr\/sbin\/slattach $TTYBASENAME *$/\1/p`
#  Just say that we are up.
   logger -t SLIP -p info "$USER: Starting up daemon (pid $SLPID) for [$IPADDRESS] on $TTYDEV"
# Something must be wrong with the LCK-File
  SH3PID=`ps -aef | awk ' {print $2}' | grep $SHPID`

  if [ ."$SH3PID" = ."" ]

  if [ $SHPID = $SH3PID ]
#  There is a living process which owns the LCK-File !!
	/usr/bin/logger -t SLIP -p error "$USER: Cannot remove LCK file for $TTYDEV (not owner)"
       exit 64
#   Who the hell didn't remove the LCK-File (should never happen)
	/usr/bin/logger -t SLIP -p error "$USER: LCK file for $TTYDEV found with no owner"
       exit 64

if [ $DEBUG -eq 1] 
	/usr/bin/logger -t SLIP -p debug "$USER: going to trap signals..."
# Kill slattach if we get a signal 1 (Carrier Lost ? / Otherside-slattach
# terminated )
trap "kill $SLPID; /usr/bin/logger -t SLIP -p info \"$USER: Killing daemon (pid $SLPID) for $TTYDEV\"; exit 0" 1 

if [ $DEBUG -eq 1] 
	trap "/usr/bin/logger -t SLIP -p debug \"$USER: trap ERR\"" ERR
	trap "/usr/bin/logger -t SLIP -p debug \"$USER: trap 0\"" 0
	trap > /tmp/trap.$TTYBASENAME.log
	/usr/bin/logger -t SLIP -p debug "$USER: trap returns $?..."

# We  will have a nice sleep and nice dreamings
if [ $DEBUG -eq 1] 
	/usr/bin/logger -t SLIP -p debug "$USER: going to sleep-loop..."

while [ true ];
sleep 60;

# Sanity check (should never happen...)
/usr/bin/logger -t SLIP -p error "$USER: ERROR: .profile broken"

Here's another scenario:
From: (Brian Oostenbrink)

Operating System: IBM AIX 3.2.1 and 3.2.3

Configuring two RS6000s via a Serial Line Interface Protocol (SLIP) 
connection over two US Robotics Sportster 14,400 modems.

The AIX implementation of SLIP is slightly different from most others. 
The ifconfig command is used to bring up a serial interface, and the
slattach command is used to connect the interface to the serial port
used for the connection.  Dialer device commands can also be issued when
invoking the slattach command, using UUCP chat syntax.

The following describes a connection between two machines:

         ethernet IP address
         slip interface IP address

         ethernet IP address
         slip interface address

1. Interface configuration

Each machine must have a separate IP address dedicated to the SLIP
interface. On remote.j.k.l, start the SLIP interface with:

         ifconfig sl0  up

and on local.a.b.c:

         ifconfig sl0  up

It is important in later versions of AIX 3.2.3+ to use the same SLIP
interface # as the ptty port #, ie. if you use tty12, use ifconfig sl12
instead of sl0.

At this point the interfaces are ready to be connected.

2. tty configuration
   The tty ports on both machines were configured in an identical manner
   using smit.
                                                 [Entry Fields]
 TTY type                                           tty
 TTY interface                                      rs232
 Description                                        Asynchronous Terminal
 Parent adapter                                     sa0
 PORT number                                        []                       +
 BAUD rate                                          [38400]                  +
 PARITY                                             [none]                   +
 BITS per character                                 [8]                      +
 Number of STOP BITS                                [1]                      +
 TERMINAL type                                      [dumb]
 STATE to be configured at boot time                [available]              +
 DMA                                                on                       +
 Read Trigger                                       0,1,2,3
 Transmit buffer count                              [16]                      #
 Name of initial program to run                     [etc/getty]

 Note: The following attributes are only applicable if /etc/getty is specified
 as the initial program to run.

 Enable program?                                    respawn
 Run level                                          2
 Enable LOGIN                                       disable                  +
 TIME before advancing to next port setting         [0]                      +#
 STTY attributes for RUN TIME                       [hupcl,cread,brkint,icr>
 STTY attributes for LOGIN                          [hupcl,cread,echoe,cs8,>
 RUN shell activity manager                         no                       +
 Optional LOGGER name                               []

On older versions of AIX, we encountered some problems disabling getty, and
resorted to changing the /etc/inittab file directly. For example, change

   tty0:2:respawn:/etc/getty /dev/tty0
   tty0:2:off:/etc/getty /dev/tty0

This will disable getty from running. After creating the SLIP tty device,
you will need to change its hardware configuration to disable Xon/Xoff
flow control. Software flow control should not be used for SLIP. Type
'smit chtty', and then select sub item 2: Hardware settings.

Most of the parameters in the tty configuration are the defaults.

3. Modem Configuration

   The modems were configured as follows:

   RTS/CTS flow control enabled.
   Xon/Xoff software flow control disabled. Usually this is automatic if
      RTS/CTS is enabled.
   Data rate, terminal to modem = fixed.
      This is the baud rate from the tty port to the modem. We used a
      fixed modem-port transfer rate, set to the fastest speed supported
      by both the tty port and the modem. Newer modems can use a higher
      transfer rate between the modem and serial port than the modem to
      modem rate, which is necessary to use data compression effectively.  
      In our setup, we used 14.4 kBaud modems with a port speed of 38.4
      kBaud. If your modem supports this feature, use it, otherwise set
      the port speed equal to the modem connection rate. On the USR
      Sportster at&b1 fixes the serial port rate to that of the last
      AT command. The speed parameter of the slattach command can be
      used to ensure that this rate is that set in the tty configuration.
   Error Correction enabled - not mandatory, but a good idea
   Data Compression - not required, but it helps, especially for text
   Auto Answer - If the SLIP connection is to be initiated from either
      machine, both modems should be set to auto answer, otherwise, just
      the answering modem.

   It is a good idea to configure the modem and then save the settings
   to NVRAM, so that the correct settings can always be restored by the
   slattach command.

4. UUCP configuration files


   The Devices file must contain an entry with the tty and serial port
   speed used for the interface. In our example,
      Direct tty0 38400 slipdialer

   The keyword 'slipdialer' is merely an index into the Dialers file.
   For our purposes, the slipdialer entry in the Dialers file is simply:


   This entry can also contain UUCP chat commands, or the chat commands
   can be included in the slattach command.

5. slattach invocation

   slattach connects the device on the tty port to the SLIP interface
   created by ifconfig, and sends any commands to the tty device if
   needed. For our example, remote.j.k.l would never initiate a call,
   only answer incoming calls. Therefore we execute:

         slattach tty0 38400 '"" ATZ OK ""'

   which connects the tty at 38400 baud. We could also simply run

         slattach tty0

   ie. without any modem commands, but the modem to port speed may not
   be correctly set this way. In addition, the ATZ command ensures the
   modem is set to the NVRAM settings.

   On local.a.b.c type:

         slattach tty0 38400 '"" ATZ OK \pATDT4925871 BIS ""' 4

   This establishes the link at 38400 baud, and executes the dial string
   as shown. The dial string is a UUCP chat string and are configured
   in an expect send expect send ... format. The string:

         '"" ATZ OK \pATDT4925871 BIS ""'

   is interpreted as:
   expect "" (null string) from modem
   send   ATZ              to modem
   expect OK               from modem
   send   \pATDT4925871    to modem
   expect BIS              from modem

   BIS is the end of the CONNECT STRING. You could use any portion of
   the string returned by the modem upon a connection as the expect
   string. It may be wiser to simply expect CONNECT since all
   connections should return this string.
   The null strings are necessary because the first parameter of the
   UUCP is an expected string from the modem, which can only be a null
   string until the modem has been given a command.

   The last parameter (4) of the slattach command is the debug level. 
   A debug level of 4 displays the UUCP chat strings, which is useful
   for checking the modem status.

6. Routing
   ifconfig is sufficient if all you want to do is talk between the
   two hosts.  If you are running SLIP so that you can talk to more
   than just that one other host you have to advertise your address.
   1) arp -s 802.5 iago 10:00:5a:b1:49:d8 pub
        where 802.5 is a token-ring network the hardware address can
        be obtained with `netstat -v` and iago was the SLIP client (My
        PC at home :)  pub is the important part it means "published"
        You may want to run this at boot time. 

   Routing through the SLIP link is similiar to routing of any gateway. 
   Invoking the ifconfig command automatically sets up a route between
   the two SLIP machines. An entry in /etc/hosts or the named database
   should be made, with the same machine name used for the SLIP address
   as the ethernet address on each machine. For example, in /etc/hosts
   on remote.a.b.c (and any other machine on remote.a.b.c ethernet): remote.a.b.c # ethernet address  remote.a.b.c # slip address

   It is preferable to place the ethernet address in the hosts file
   before the SLIP address so remote.a.b.c will resolve to the
   ethernet address. When using named, it is important to have both
   addresses in the reverse file with the same name. We experienced
   difficulties with NFS mounting over the slip link, owing to some
   machine interpreting NFS requests from one of the two SLIP machines
   as coming from the SLIP address, while the SLIP machine believed it
   was sending the request from the ethernet address. This problem was
   eliminated by having both addresses reverse resolve to the same name.

7. Performance
   At a modem speed of 14.4 kBaud and a port speed of 38.4 kBaud, we
   realized a transfer rate through ftp of about 3.5 kB/s for text
   files, and 1.3 kB/s for compressed files.

1.607: Where is DCE discussed?

DCE is the Distributed Computing Environment, which is roughly a
flexible client-server architecture for heterogenous platforms.
For more information, take a look in comp.soft-sys.dce.

1.608: How do I make /var/spool/mail mountable?
From: (Joerg Petersen)

In our cluster we share a /usr/local disk. We have a directory
/usr/local/spool/mail and /var/spool/mail is soft-linked to it.

From: fred@hal6000.thp.Uni-Duisburg.DE (Fred Hucht)

Several problems has been reported on sharing the mail directory via
NFS. The problems may occur when two or more sendmail daemons and/or
mail readers access a user's mail file simultanously, because of NFS'
file locking mechanism.

We use another method here: Every user has one line in his/her
$HOME/.forward file that reads

where xxx is the user node and is the full
hostname of one of the machines. Then all incoming mail to all machines
is forwarded to mainserver, while mainserver ignores this line.

1.609: getty spawning too rapidly 
thanks to (Sohail Aslam)

The problem can occur due a number of modem settings. The most
frequent is that the echo is not disabled on modems that are to
accept incoming calls. In hayes language, ATE0 disables echo.
If echo is enabled, the login prompt sent by the DTE (computer)
is echoed back to it. It then issues "password:" prompt which
the modem conveniently echoes back again. And the cycle goes on.

Another setting to check is the Q registers which controls the
modem's response to the DTE. The hayes command ATQ0 enables
results codes. The Q register in conjunction with the X and
the V registers, reports back to the DTE the status of the incoming
or outgoing call, and the type of connection established. For
outgoing calls, one would want to enable result codes but not
for incoming calls. If codes are enabled (via ATQ0), when a
call comes in, the modem will send strings (if ATV1 and ATX4 set)
"RINGING", "CONNECTED" etc. to the local DTE. The getty will think
some one is trying to login. It will send password prompt. Trouble
again. Telebit and other intelligent modems has ATQ2 setting
which says "reports codes only when calling out." For others,
you will need to disable it (ATQ1) and enable when calling out.

The DSR setting can be a source of problem. Ideally, modem should
raise DSR only when CD is detected and modem raises CTS. Computer,
such as the VAX, wait 30 seconds after the modem raises DSR. If
CD is not on by that time, the computer will drop DTR causing the
modem to reset. The DSR should be set to be raised only when
carrier has been detected. The hayes setting is AT&S1.

The DCD setting should be such that it reflects the true nature of
the carrier. The CD can be forced on at all times (AT&C0). This
is not good. Set it to AT&C1.

Most modems can reload saved settings from non-volatile memory
on a DTR transition. This is useful for resetting the modem
when a call drops. Use AT&D3 to get this effect. 

For dial in, thus, set AT E0 Q1 &C1 &D3 &S1 &W. The &W stores the
settings in memory. They will be reloaded due to &D3.

1.610: Does AIX support Compressed SLIP (CSLIP)?

No.  That means no VJ compression either :)  See PPP in section 5.07 
if you want more than standard SLIP.

1.611: How do I setup anonymous ftp on my AIX system?
(stolen from Peter Klee <klee@dhdibm1.bitnet> posting)

Have a look at '/usr/lpp/tcpip/samples/anon.ftp'. It is a shell script
and will set up a anonymous ftp site on your local RS/6000.  Note: the
ftpd that comes with AIX does not support the display messages every
time a user changes a directory or even when they login.

1.612: Talk, getting notification.

If you are not getting notification (that someone wants to talk to
you), use (swcons `tty` && mesg y) in one window.

There are many variations of 'talk' and finding compatible versions
for multiple operating systems can be tricky.

1.613: Disabling software flow control; using RTS/CTS.

Different versions of AIX 3.2.5 respond differently to attempts to
enable flow control (RTS/CTS signals).  This section is an attempt to
compile a list of different approaches.

The most straight forward is:
   chdev -l ttyxx -a rts=yes
   [ Note: ix40410 for AIX 3.2.5 should give you this functionality.  
   PTF U426113 and numerous other superceding ptfs should provide this.]

If carrier signal is high (its connected) you can try
   stty add rts </dev/ttyxx 

There is also a program that I first saw on the 800-IBM-4FAX number,
also found in INFO that will remedy the situation in some cases.  Note
that this code ignores the return code from ioctl (which on my machine
is <0 :)

/* This program is an adaptation of a program provided by IBM Defect Support.
   It is provided without warrantee, or support.

   The syntax of the command is:

	setrts tty [tty [tty [...]]]

   The program will loop through each tty provided on the command line, and 
   turn on the 'rts' line discipline.  The program does not require that
   the Carrier Detect signal be held high to keep the serial device from 
   blocking on the attempt to open it.  The program works for all valid ttys.

   BUGS: None that are known; however, using the program to set 'ptys' may
   cause the 'pty' to become unusable.

   This program was written by Robin D. Wilson, Pencom Software (with the
   specific 'ioctl()' call provided by the IBM Defect Support Center.

   I call it: "setrts"
   To compile:
   cc -O -o setrts setrts.c
   strip setrts
   (Funny, but if you strip with the compiler (i.e., cc -s), you end up with
   120 extra bytes in the executable...)

#include <stdio.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <termios.h>
#include <sys/tty.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <sys/param.h>
#include <unistd.h>

#define DEVDIR		"/dev/"
#define	LINEDISP	"rts"

main (argc, argv)
int argc;
char **argv;
	int tty;
	char ttyname[MAXPATHLEN];

/*	Give a 'usage' recommendation if they don't provide an argument */
	if (argc < 2) {
	   fprintf(stderr, "usage: %s <ttyn> [ttyn [ttyn [...]]]\n",argv[0]);
 /*	Otherwise, loop through all the arguments... */
	else while (--argc >= 1) {
 /*	Check to see if they input the 'tty' names with the DEVDIR on them...
 *	If not, put it on...
		if (strncmp(DEVDIR, argv[0], strlen(DEVDIR)) != 0) {
			strcpy(ttyname, DEVDIR);
			strcat(ttyname, argv[0]);
			strcpy(ttyname, argv[0]);

/*	Open the tty.  Use the non-blocking open (O_NDELAY) to open without a 
 *	carrier (CD) present on the line...
		if ((tty = open(ttyname, O_RDWR|O_NDELAY)) < 0) {
		   fprintf(stderr, "%s: couldn't open tty device.\n",ttyname);
		   exit (-2);
 /*	Add the 'rts' line discipline... */
		(void)ioctl(tty, TXADDCD, LINEDISP);

1.614+ NIS security (Ole Holm Nielsen)

SUMMARY: AIX 3.2.4 and above includes support for a more secure setup
of the ypserv NIS daemon.  You can prevent any random host on the
entire Internet from reading your NIS maps, as is possible with the
default AIX setup.
The details:
After starting the ypserv daemon, I noticed in the syslog the following line:
Jan 17 12:01:18 zeise syslog: /usr/etc/ypserv: no /var/yp/securenets file 
This indicates that ypserv is looking for the mentioned configuration
file, but did not find it, and hence will deliver the NIS maps to
anyone on the net who can guess the NIS domainname.  I installed the
/var/yp/securenets file and restarted ypserv, and it works !  Any
illegal attempt to read NIS maps will result in the following getting
logged to syslog (example):
Jan 18 13:37:27 zeise syslog: ypserv: access denied for 

How to enable this NIS security option:  
Install the /var/yp/securenets file, for example:

# /var/yp/securenets file
# The format of this file is one of more lines of
# netmask netaddr
# Both netmask and netaddr must be dotted quads.
# Note that for a machine with two Ethernet interfaces (i.e. a gateway
# machine), the IP addresses of both have to be in /var/yp/securenets.
# for example:
# Loopback interface

Uncommenting the last line would limit access to hosts on the
128.185.124.*  net, only.  The loopback interface must be included, as
shown above.

To log violations, have a /etc/syslog.conf file containing the proper
events.  We use this line:

*.err;kern.debug;auth.notice;user.none          /var/adm/messages

Caveat emptor:  This works for us, and you will have to verify it at
your own installation.  Don't complain to us if you have troubles.  
I do not know what PTF level our AIX 3.2.4 is at.  Our ypserv daemon 
looks like this:

zeise> strings /usr/lib/netsvc/yp/ypserv | head -2
1.12  com/cmd/usr.etc/yp/ypserv.c, cmdnfs, nfs325, 9334325a 5/4/93 19:44:41

If your AIX doesn't have securenets support, ask your support centre
for the PTF which includes APAR IX32328.  That seems to have included
the securenets support.

1.615: Why can't non-anonymous users login using WU-FTP?
From: (Shane Castle)

You must create a file named /etc/shells (this is the real /etc not a
subdirectory of your false root), that contains all the shells that
are defined on your system.  Get the list from
/etc/security/login.cfg.  Also, if having proper group authentication
is important to you, apply the following patch:

--- ftpd.c.dist	Wed Apr 13 15:17:18 1994
+++ ftpd.c	Tue Jan 17 13:29:58 1995
@@ -1153,7 +1153,13 @@
        setgroups(NULL, NULL);
                    &priv, sizeof(priv_t)) < 0 ||
-           setuidx(ID_REAL|ID_EFFECTIVE, (uid_t)pw->pw_uid) < 0 ||
+           initgroups(pw->pw_name, (gid_t)pw->pw_gid) < 0 ||
+           setgidx(ID_REAL|ID_EFFECTIVE, (gid_t)pw->pw_gid) < 0 ||
+           setegid((gid_t)pw->pw_gid) < 0) {
+               reply(550, "Can't set gid (AIX3).");
+               goto bad;
+       }
+       if (setuidx(ID_REAL|ID_EFFECTIVE, (uid_t)pw->pw_uid) < 0 ||
            seteuid((uid_t)pw->pw_uid) < 0) {
                reply(550, "Can't set uid (AIX3).");
                goto bad;

1.616: NIS users can't login, do I need '*' in /etc/passwd?
From: (Ole Holm Nielsen)

Aparently at least one version of AIX InfoExplorer suggests
administrators use "+:*:0:0:::" as the last entry in the /etc/passwd
file of NIS clients for security reasons.  If the configuration SMIT
is done using SMIT it will actually append "+::0:0:::" which works and
does not compromise security.  Using the '*' in the passwd field
actaully prevents NIS users from logging in.

"+::0:0:::" should not allow you to login as user "+" and without a
password even when NIS is disabled, but it never hurts to double
check. (Ross Bogue) has suggested that
"+::-2:-2:::/bin/false" is even more secure.

1.617: HP JetDirect cards and virtual printers?  mkvirprt problems?
(stolen from many)

Since the release of AIX 3.2.5 adding a queue for JetDirect cards is
as easy as creating a virtual printer using "smit mkvirprt" or
/etc/mkvirprt.  If the command hangs make sure you are using an
HFT, aixterm or vt100 terminal.  The entire procedure is available
from the IBM FAX "Information Line" (800 IBM-4-FAX).

1.618: How can I hack libc.a to alter how hostnames are resolved?
(From: <> "L. Mark Larsen")

  Editors note:  The implications of corrupting libc.a should not be
  understated.  While recovering from a corrupt libc.a should be a
  matter of booting from floppy I wouldn't wish that on anyone with a 
  supervisor or users to support :)

  enough of the weak kneed quivering...

Nate Itkin (a colleague) is the individual who did the initial work.
I suspect he would rather not be troubled with any questions you may
have in this area and I can probably answer them just as easily.  The
motivation for this was to use DNS for MX records (we are using IDA
sendmail) but NIS for most hostname lookups.

Secondly, warnings:  IBM has not given any sort of stamp of approval on what
we have done (though they appear to have integrated resolv+ into AIX 4 based
on some release notes I saw).  While we have been using it successfully for
about one year and have seen no problems, we can't and won't promise the same
for you.  This procedure plays around with libc.a which, as you probably know,
is an XCOFF shared library under AIX and hence a critical part of the running
system.  You assume all the risk if you try to install this.  All the usual
disclaimers about liability, etc. apply - there is no warranty associated with
any of this.

Furthermore, know that any PTF you subsequently install that updates/replaces
libc.a implies that you have to execute most of these procedures again.

To use resolv+ under AIX 3 (we've only done this under 3.2.5 but I would
think it should work for all point releases), here is what you have to do:

1. get the resolv+ source (I see a copy on in networking/ip/dns
   and there are likely copies elsewhere).  We are using version 2.1.1,
   which appears to be the latest available.  gethostnamadr.c needs a couple
   of additions:

	> #ifdef _AIX
	> #include <sys/time.h>
	> #endif
	> #ifdef _AIX
	> #include <sys/ioctl.h>         /* for SIOCGIFCONF */
	> #else
	> #endif

2. Use the following instead of the supplied shlib/Makefile:

LIBP=	gethostnamadr.o herror.o res_data.o res_query.o res_mkquery.o \
	sethostent.o res_send.o res_debug.o res_comp.o res_init.o

all: shr.o 

shr.o:	$(LIBP) setup 
	ld -o $@ /lib/syscalls.exp $(LIBP) tmp.o -bM:SRE -bE:shr.exp -bE:/lib/syscalls.exp -bI:crypt.imp -H512 -T512 -bh:4 -lc

	rm -f libc.a crypt.imp
	cp /lib/libc.a .
	chmod 755 libc.a
	ar xv libc.a shr.o
	/bin/dump -nv shr.o | grep EXP | awk '{print $$NF}' > shr.exp
	ld -o tmp.o -bnso shr.o -r
	@ echo '#!' > crypt.imp
	@ echo __crypt >> crypt.imp
	@ echo __setkey >> crypt.imp
	@ echo __encrypt >> crypt.imp
	rm -f shr.o tmp.o crypt.imp shr.exp $(LIBP) libc.a

install_libc:	install_libc.c
	cc -o $@ install_libc.c -bnso -bI:/lib/syscalls.exp

herror.o: ../herror.c
	$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c ../herror.c

res_comp.o: ../res_comp.c
	$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c ../res_comp.c

res_debug.o: ../res_debug.c
	$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c ../res_debug.c

res_data.o: ../res_data.c
	$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c ../res_data.c

res_init.o: ../res_init.c
	$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c ../res_init.c

res_mkquery.o: ../res_mkquery.c
	$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c ../res_mkquery.c

res_query.o: ../res_query.c
	$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c ../res_query.c

res_send.o: ../res_send.c
	$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c ../res_send.c

gethostnamadr.o: ../gethostnamadr.c
	$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c ../gethostnamadr.c

sethostent.o: ../sethostent.c
	$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c ../sethostent.c

strpbrk.o: ../strpbrk.c
	$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c ../strpbrk.c

strerror.o: ../strerror.c
	$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c ../strerror.c

3. As shipped, IBM's /lib/syscalls.exp contains an entry for fork().  This
   needs to be removed as it will cause the new shr.o to use the system call
   entry point rather than the library wrapper and this can cause some rather
   odd behavior.  For example, I ran across one using the '!' command in vi
   where the error/informational messages were corrupted.

4. You can use "ar r libc.a shr.o" but that will leave a big hole in libc.a,
   since the new shr.o is slightly bigger than the original.  I always extract
   all the .o's from libc.a and build a brand new one - suit yourself.

5. Before the next step, you'll want to set up the two configuration files.
   The first is /etc/resolv.conf and it is basically the same as before
   except for the new keyword "search" - intended to replace the "domain".  See
   the resolver.5 manual page for details (included with the resolv+ source).
   The other file is /etc/host.conf, which is where you set the order of
   search.  See resolv+.8 for information on this.

6. Now, the only tricky part left is to get the new libc.a installed.  You'll
   note the Makefile has a target for install_libc.  Just put the following
   in install_lib.c and run "make install_libc" to build.

------------------------------- begin install_libc.c -------------------------
#include <stdio.h>

static char *nodns[] = { "/usr/ccs/lib/libc.a" , "/usr/ccs/lib/libc.a.ORIG" };
static char *hasdns[] = { "/usr/ccs/lib/libc.a.NEW" , "/usr/ccs/lib/libc.a" };

#define OLD     (0)
#define NEW     (1)


	if(link(nodns[OLD],nodns[NEW])) {

	if(unlink(nodns[OLD])) {

	if(link(hasdns[OLD],hasdns[NEW])) {

	if(unlink(hasdns[OLD])) {

------------------------------- end install_libc.c ---------------------------

7. You'll want to do this on a quiet machine.  Move the new libc.a to
   /usr/ccs/lib/libc.a.NEW, then run install_libc.  It is probably a good
   idea to reboot afterwords (though not strictly required).  We have a similar
   program called restore_libc (exercise for the reader) for backing out the

   Rather than do this on every machine (we have 170+ RS/6000's), I simply
   put this new libc.a into my network-installable image, which I blasted
   out over the year-end holiday break (I created a method for loading a new
   image onto machines without having to boot off of floppies and turn keys).

   Of course, for the really cautious, you can always make the change after
   booting off of the maintenance floppies...

1.619: What modem settings do I need?

ATQ2  - result codes in originate only
AT&C1 - CD follows state of carrier 
AT&D2 - hangup on DTR drop

1.620: NIS slave server config with master on different subnet?
From: (Mike Sidler)

Assuming AIX 3.2.5,the master server up and running and the hosts file
has the master name defined. On slave do:

    1) domainname <domain_name that matches master>
    2) startsrv -s ypserv
    3) startsrv -s ypbind (ypwhich should return "loopback")
    4) (/usr/sbin/)ypset -d <domainname> <master_server_name>
       (ypwhich should return "<master_server_name>"
    5) (/usr/sbin/)ypinit -s <master_server_name>
    6) Put "+::0:0:::" in /etc/passwd after last local login. 
       Note: InfoExplorer has this entry INCORRECT in some versions.
    7) Other cfg files (group, etc) may need configuring but this will
       get ypserv and ypbind running on the slave looking at the right stuff.

1.701: How do I shrink /usr?
From: mike@bria.UUCP (Michael Stefanik) and Richard Hasting


 1) Make a backup of /usr

        find /usr -print | backup -ivf /dev/rmt0 (or appropriate device)

 2) shutdown to maintenance mode

        shutdown -Fm
 3) export LANG=C
 4) remove the filesystem and the logical volume
    ignore an error about the "dspmsg" command not found

        umount /usr
        rmfs /usr

 5) make a new logical volume hd2 and place it on rootvg with desired size

        mklv -yhd2 -a'e' rootvg NNN 

   where NNN is the number of 4 meg partitions

 6) create a filesystem on /dev/hd2

        crfs -vjfs -dhd2 -m'/usr' -Ayes -p'rw'

 7) mount the new /usr filesystem and check it

        /etc/mount /usr
        df -v

 8) restore from the tape; system won't reboot otherwise

        restore -xvf/dev/rmt0

 9) Sync and reboot the system; you now have a smaller /usr filesystem


 0)  Experiences posted to comp.unix.aix lead me to suggest that
     many administrators find the following piece of information 
     useful after completing this procedure.  I thought some of you
     might like to read it BEFORE getting yourself into this

     Call 1-800-IBM-4FAX and request document 2503 dated 1/26/94.  
     Title is "How to recover if all files are owned by root after
     restoration from a mksysb tape".

 1) Remove any unneeded files from /usr.

 2) Make sure all filesystems in the root volume group are mounted. If
    not, they will not be included in the re-installed system.

 3) Type mkszfile. This will create /.fs.size that contains a list of
    the active filesystems in the root volume group that will be
    included in the installation procedure.

 4) Edit .fs.size. Change the size of /usr to what you want.

    Example: This .fs.size file shows /usr to be 40MB.

	rootvg 4 hd2 /usr 10 40 jfs

    The 10 is the number of physical partitions for the filesystem and
    the 40 is 40 MB. Most systems have a physical partition size of 4 MB.
    Therefore, the second number (40) will always be 4 times the
    previous number (10). Note, however, that a model 320 with a 120 MB
    drive will have a physical partition size of only 2 MB, and the
    total MB is twice the number of physical partitions. The first
    number (4) in the .fs.size file represents the PP size.

    If you want to reduce the size of /usr from 40 MB to 32 MB, edit the
    /usr entry to:

        rootvg 4 hd2 /usr 8 32 jfs

    IMPORTANT: Make sure that you DO NOT enter a value which is less
    than the size of the filesystem required to contain the current
    data. Doing so will cause the re-installation procedure to fail.

 5) chdev -l rmt0 -a block=512 -T

 6) Unmount all filesystems that are NOT in the root volume group.
 7) Varyoff all user-defined volume groups, if any

        varyoffvg VGname

 8) Export the user-defined volume groups, if any

        exportvg VGname

 9) With a tape in the tape drive, type

        mksysb /dev/rmt0

     This will do a complete system backup, which will include
     information (in the .fs.size file) for the installation procedure
     on how large the filesystems are to be created.

 10) Follow the instructions in the Installation Kit under "How to
     Install and perform maintenance from Diskettes" (reportedly now 
     called "BOS Installation from a System Backup") using the
     diskettes and tape that you created in the previous steps.

     [ pre AIX 325: DO NOT select the option "Reinstall AIX with
     Current System Settings". Instead use "Install AIX with Current
     System Settings" for the logical volume size changes to take affect. ]

     [ w/ AIX 325: Select "Install from a mksysb image" ]

 11) When the installation is complete, you may then import any
     user-defined volume groups.

         importvg -y VGname PVname

     where "VGname" is the name of the volume group, and "PVname" is
     the name of any one of the physical volumes in the volume group.

 12) Varyon your user-defined volume groups

         varyonvg VGname

 The reduction of the filesystems is now complete.

1.702: How do I make a filesystem larger than 2Gb?

With AIX 4.1 IBM allows filesystems up to 64Gb (reference:
<URL:>).  Individual files are
still limited to 2Gb.

If you are having trouble creating a file greater than 1Mb it maybe
because that is the default limit for your account, see 'smit users'
or /etc/security/limit.

The largest filesystem under AIX is 2 Gigabytes because the largest
signed integer is 2**31 - 1.  This means that AIX 3.2.5 an versions
preceeding it are limited to 2Gb filesystems.  This obviously does not
include "non-filesystems"

1.703: Chlv warning.  Is the first 4k of a LV safe?

The first 4k of a raw LV are used to store control block.
Applications that write to the raw disk can overwrite this section
(common applications that do this are Oracle and Sybase).  Commands
that call getlvcb will generate a warning but succeed (since the
control block exists in ODM.  Don't run synclvodm unless you really
want to erase the first 4k and replace it with the info from the ODM. (Johnny Shieh) has kindly provided the following

The logical volume control block (lvcb) is the first 512
bytes of a logical volume.  This area holds important
information such as the creation date of the logical volume,
information about mirrored copies, and possible mount points
in a journaled filesystem.  Certain LVM commands are required
to update the lvcb, as part of completeness algorithms in
LVM.  The old lvcb area is first read and analyzed to see if
it is a valid lvcb.  If the information is verified as valid
lvcb information, then the lvcb is updated.  If the
information is not valid, then the lvcb update is not
performed and the user is given the warning message:

	Warning, cannot write lv control block data

Most of the time, this is a result of database programs
accessing the raw logical volumes (and thus bypassing the
journaled filesystem) as storage media.  When this occurs, the
information for the database is literally written over the lvcb.
Although this may seem fatal, it is not the case.  Once the
lvcb has been overwritten, the user can still:

	1) Extend a logical volume
	2) Create mirrored copies of a logical volume
	3) Remove the logical volume
	4) Create a journaled filesystem with which to mount
		the logical volume (note that this will destroy any
		data sitting in the lvcb area)

However, there is a limitation caused by this deletion of the
lvcb.  The logical volumes with deleted lvcb's face possible,
incomplete importation into other AIX systems.  During an
"importvg", the LVM command will scan the lvcb's of all defined
logical volumes in a volume group for information concerning the
logical volumes.  Surprisingly, if the lvcb is deleted, the
imported volume group will still define the logical volume to
the new AIX system which is accessing this volume group, and
the user can still access the raw logical volume.  However, any
journaled filesystem information is lost and the logical volume
and its associated mount point won't be imported into the new AIX
system.  The user must create new mount points and the availability
of previous data stored in the filesystem is NOT assured.  Also, during
this import of a logical volume with an erased LVCB, some non-jfs
information concerning the logical volume, which is displayed with
the "lslv" command, cannot be found.  When this occurs, the system uses
default logical volume information to populate the logical volume's
ODM information.  Thus, some output from the "lslv" will be inconsistent
with the real logical volume.  If logical volume copies still exist on
the original disks, this information will not be correctly reflected in
the ODM database.  The user should use "rmlvcopy" and "mklvcopy" to
rebuild any logical volume copies and synchronize the ODM.  Finally,
with an erased lvcb, the output from the "lslv" command might be
misleading or unreliable.

1.704: What's the limit on Physical Partitions Per Volume Group?
From: (Johnny Shieh)

In the design of LVM, each Logical Partition maps to one
Physical Partition.  And, each Physical Partition maps to a
number of disk sectors.  The design of LVM limits the number
of Physical Partitions that LVM can track per disk to 1016.
In most cases, not all the possible 1016 tracking partitions
are used by a disk.  The default size of each Physical
Partition during a "mkvg" command is 4 MB, which implies that
individual disks up to 4 GB can be included into a volume

If a disk larger than 4 GB is added to a volume group (based
on usage of the default 4 MB size for Physical Partition) the
disk addition will fail with a warning message that the
Physical Partition size needs to be increased.* There are two
instances where this limitation will be enforced.  The first
case is when the user tries to use "mkvg" to create a volume
group where the number of physical partitions on one of the
disks in the volume group would exceed 1016.  In this case,
the user must pick from the available Physical Partition
ranges of:

1, 2, (4), 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256

Megabytes and use the "-s" option to "mkvg".  The second
case is where the disk which violates the 1016 limitation
is attempting to join a pre-existing volume group with
the "extendvg" command.  The user can either recreate the
volume group with a larger Physical Partition size (which
will allow the new disk to work with the 1016 limitation)
or the user can create a standalone volume group (consisting
of a larger Physical Partition size) for the new disk.

In AIX 4.1 and 3.2.5, if the install code detects that the
rootvg drive is larger than 4 GB, it will change the "mkvg
-s" value until the entire disk capacity can be mapped to the
available 1016 tracks.** This install change also implies
that all other disks added to rootvg, regardless of size,
will also be defined at that new Physical Partitions size.

For RAID systems, the /dev/hdiskX name used by LVM in AIX may
really consist of many non-4GB disks.  In this case, the 1016
limitation still exists.  LVM is unaware of the size of the
individual disks that may really make up /dev/hdiskX.  LVM bases
the 1016 limitation on the AIX recognized size of /dev/hdiskX,
and not the real independent physical disks that make up /dev/hdiskX.

* This bug was fixed in apar ix48926.  Current AIX 3.2.5 and
4.1.1, which do not have this fix on applied, will allow the
creation of volume groups with more than 1016 partitions.  The
implication of this bug allowing more than 1016 physical
partitions is that the user may access all portions of the logical
volume.  However during disk mirroring, the status of partitions
beyond the 1016 limit will not be tracked correctly.  If mirrors
beyond the 1016 range become "stale", LVM will not be aware of
their condition and data consistency may become an issue for
those partitions.  Additionally, the "migratepv" command creates
mirrors and deletes them as a method for moving logical volumes
around within/between disks.  If the 1016 limit is violated,
then the "migratepv" command may not behave correctly.
Additionally, the user should read the non-ptf documentation apar
ix50874 which is a companion to ix48926.

** This bug was fixed for AIX 3.2.5 rootvg install in apars
ix46862 and ix46863.  This bug does not exist in AIX 4.1.1.

1.705: Why am I having trouble adding another disk to my VG?
From: (Johnny Shieh)

In some instances, the user will experience a problem adding
a new disk to an existing volume group or in the creation of
a new volume group.  The warning message provided by LVM will

	Not enough descriptor space left in this volume group.
	Either try adding a smaller PV or use another volume group.

On every disk in a volume group, there exists an area called the
Volume Group Descriptor Area (VGDA).  This space is what allows
the user to take a volume group to another AIX system and
"importvg" that volume group into that AIX system.  The VGDA
contains the names of disks that make up the volume group, their
physical sizes, partition mapping, logical volumes that exist in
the volume group, and other pertinent LVM management information.

When the user creates a volume group, the "mkvg" command
defaults to allowing the new volume group to have a maximum
of 32 disks in a volume group.  However, as bigger disks have
become more prevalent, this 32 disk limit is usually not
achieved because the space in the VGDA is used up faster, as
it accounts for the capacity on the bigger disks.  This
maximum VGDA space, for 32 disks, is a fixed size which is
part of the LVM design.  Large disks require more management
mapping space in the VGDA, which causes the number and size
of available disks to be added to the existing volume group
to shrink.  When a disk is added to a volume group, not only
does the new disk get a copy of the updated VGDA, but all
existing drives in the volume group must be able to accept
the new, updated VGDA.

The exception to this description of the maximum VGDA is
rootvg.  In order to provide AIX users more free space, when
rootvg is created, "mkvg" does not use the maximum limit of
32 disks that are allowed into a volume group.  Instead in
AIX 3.2, the number of disks picked in the install menu of
AIX is used as the reference number by "mkvg -d" during the
creation of rootvg.  For AIX 4.1, this "-d" number is 7 for
one disk and one more for each additional disk
picked. i.e. you pick two disks, the number is 8.  you pick
three disks, the number is 9, and so on.....  This limit does
not mean the user cannot add more disks to rootvg in the
post-install phase.  The amount of free space left in a VGDA,
and thus the number of size of the disks added to a volume
group, depends on the size and number of disks already
defined for a volume group.  However, this smaller size
during rootvg creation implies that the user will be able to
add fewer disks to rootvg than compared to a non-rootvg
volume group.

If the customer requires more VGDA space in the rootvg, then
they should use the "mksysb" and "migratepv" commands to
reconstruct and reorganize their rootvg (the only way to
change the "-d" limitation is recreation of the rootvg).

Note:  It is always strongly recommended that users do not place
user data onto rootvg disks.  This separation provides an extra
degree of system integrity.

1.706: What are the limits on a file, filesystem?

There are other limits but these come up most often.  Logical Volumes
do not _have_ to contain Journaled File Systems and therefore can be
larger than 2GB even in 3.2.5.

	File	jfs-Filesystem
3.2.5	2GB	2GB
4.1.x	2GB	64GB

1.707  Hints for Segate 9 GB and other disks larger than 4 GB? 

[read 1.704]

1.708: How do I fix Volume Group Locked?
From /usr/lpp/bos/README (AIX 3.2.5) and 1.800.IBM.4FAX #2809

If you get '0516-266 publvodm: volume group rootvg is locked, try again'
or something similar, you can use (putlvodm -K`getlvodm -v <vgname>`)


1.800: How do I control how hostnames are resolved?
From: AIX 4.1.2 Infoexplorer (posted by <> Frank Kraemer)

The default order can be overwritten by creating the configuration file,
/etc/netsvc.conf and specifying the desired order. Both the default and
/etc/netsvc.conf can be overwritten with the environment variable,
NSORDER. If either the /etc/netsvc.conf file or environment variable,
NSORDER are defined, then at least one value must be specified along with
the option.

    echo hosts = local,nis,bind >/etc/netsvc.conf
    NSORDER=local,bind; export NSORDER

1.900: SCSI-1 and SCSI-2 "interoperability" got you confused?  

A.  SCSI-1 devices are supported on a SCSI-2 adapter.  This
    config will provide SCSI-1 performance.

B.  SCSI-2 devices are supported on a SCSI-1 adapter.  This
    config will provide SCSI-1 performance.

C.  A mix of SCSI-2 and SCSI-1 devices are supported on a SCSI-1
    adapter.  All devices will have SCSI-1 performance.

D.  A mix of SCSI-2 and SCSI-1 devices are supported on a SCSI-2
    adapter.  SCSI-2 devices will have SCSI-2 performance (10 MB/sec)
    and SCSI-1 devices will have SCSI-1 performance (4-5 MB/sec).

1.901: How to get your keyboard back after unplugging it from the 6000
From: Mickey Coggins and Anne Serre and L. Mark Larsen

When you unplug your keyboard from a running system, and plug it back
in, the key mapping is wrong.  For example, keys like Caps Lock and Ctrl
don't work as designed.

Solution: Type at the command line


Your screen goes black, you hear a few beeps, and your keyboard is reset.
It works with any environment, Xwindows, hft, NLS...

For Models 220, 230 and M20, use the following commands:

/usr/lpp/diagnostics/da/dkbdsal   (for the 220)

After running the keyboard diagnostics to reset keyboard mappings, the
repeat rate is also reset to some slow value (11, according to the man
page).  If the user is in X, you need to open an hft window.  Do this
with "xopen /bin/csh".  Once you have an hft window, run "chhwkbd -r30".

1.902: How do I set up pcsim, the DOS emulator?

You must have a bootable DOS diskette to install pcsim. Either DOS 3.3, 
4.x, or 5.0 will work. IBM do not officially support DOS 5.0 for pcsim
but I have no problems with it. Just don't try to be fancy with the UMB 
and memory manager stuff.

With a bootable DOS disk in the drive, do:
$touch /u/dosdrive (this is the AIX file for DOS emulation)
$pcsim -Adiskette 3 -Cdrive /u/dosdrive
You would now get an A prompt. Type:
A> fdisk
Create the virtual C drive of whatever size you choose. Make it large 
enough for your needs since you cannot enlarge it later.
A> format c: /s (to format the virtual C drive)
Now exit from pcsim with ESCpcsim (Esc key followed by pcsim).

Now create a simprof file. Following is a starter:

Adiskette   : 3
Cdrive      :/u/dosdrive
lpt1        : name of printer queue
refresh     : 50
dmode       : V
mouse       : com1

You can now start pcsim anytime by typing pcsim. Make sure no floppies
are in the drive. For further information, refer to publication
SC23-2452, Personal Computer Simulator/6000 Guide and Reference.

1.903: How do I transfer files between AIX and DOS disks?

In one of the bos extensions are commands for transferring files between
DOS diskettes and AIX. The commands are dosread, doswrite, dosdir, dosdel,
and dosformat. Many users have mentioned that the mtools package from is better than the native AIX programs.

1.904: Where is the crypt program?

You can use PGP or crypt depending on your needs both require that you 
are a United States citizen and you reside in the United States.
Crypt is availible from your IBM marketing branch office.

The United States government classifies encryption technology as a
munition, meaning that you need an arms license to sell it overseas or
to non-US nationals.

1.905: How do I play audio CDs?
From: (Ronald S. Woan)

Get xmcd by anonymous FTP from in /contrib/applications/xmcd/

1.906: How can I get the mouse back after unplugging it?


1.907: Where can I get source code to the operating system binary xxxxx?

AIX source code is not generally available.  Two other UNIX OS' do
make their source available, Linux & freeBSD.  Check[bsd-sources|linux]

2.00: C/C++

Contrary to many people's belief, the C environment on the RS/6000 is
not very special.  The C compiler has quite a number of options that can
be used to control how it works, which "dialect" of C it compiles, how
it interprets certain language constructs, etc.  InfoExplorer includes a
Users Guide and a Reference Manual.

The compiler can be invoked with either xlc for strict ANSI mode and cc
for RT compatible mode (i.e. IBM 6150 with AIX 2).  The default options
for each mode are set in the /etc/xlc.cfg file, and you can actually add
another stanza and create a link to the /bin/xlc executable.

The file /usr/lpp/xlc/bin/README.xlc has information about the C
compiler, and the file /usr/lpp/bos/bsdport contains useful information,
in particular for users from a BSD background.

The file /etc/xlc.cfg also shows the symbol _IBMR2 that is predefined,
and therefore can be used for #ifdef'ing RS/6000 specific code.

2.01: I cannot make alloca work

A famous routine, in particular in GNU context, is the allocation
routine alloca().  Alloca allocates memory in such a way that it is
automatically free'd when the block is exited.  Most implementations
does this by adjusting the stack pointer.  Since not all C environments
can support it, its use is discouraged, but it is included in the xlc
compiler.  In order to make the compiler aware that you intend to use
alloca, you must put the line

#pragma alloca

before any other statements in the C source module(s) where alloca is
called.  If you don't do this, xlc will not recognize alloca as anything
special, and you will get errors during linking.

For AIX 3.2, it may be easier to use the -ma flag.

2.02: How do I compile my BSD programs?

The file /usr/lpp/bos/bsdport contains information on how to port
programs written for BSD to AIX 3.1.  This file may be very useful for
others as well.

A quick cc command for most "standard" BSD programs is:
  $ cc -D_BSD -D_BSD_INCLUDES  -o [loadfile] [sourcefile.c] -lbsd

If your software has system calls predefined with no prototype
parameters, also use the -D_NO_PROTO flag.

2.03: Isn't the linker different from what I am used to?

Yes.  It is not at all like what you are used to:

- The order of objects and libraries is normally _not_ important.  The
  linker reads _all_ objects including those from libraries into memory
  and does the actual linking in one go.  Even if you need to put a
  library of your own twice on the ld command line on other systems, it
  is not needed on the RS/6000 - doing so will even make your linking slower.

- One of the features of the linker is that it will replace an object in
  an executable with a new version of the same object:

  $ cc -o prog prog1.o prog2.o prog3.o		# make prog
  $ cc -c prog2.c				# recompile prog2.c
  $ cc -o prog2.o prog			# make from prog
						# by replacing prog2.o
- The standard C library /lib/libc.a is linked shared, which means that
  the actual code is not linked into your program, but is loaded only
  once and linked dynamically during loading of your program.

- The ld program actually calls the binder in /usr/lib/bind, and you can
  give ld special options to get details about the invocation of the
  binder.  These are found on the ld man page or in InfoExplorer.

- If your program normally links using a number of libraries (.a files),
  you can 'prelink' each of these into an object, which will make your
  final linking faster.  E.g. do:

  $ cc -c prog1.c prog2.c prog3.c
  $ ar cv libprog.a prog1.o prog2.o prog3.o
  $ ld -r -o libprog.o libprog.a
  $ cc -o someprog someprog.c libprog.o

This will solve all internal references between prog1.o, prog2.o and
prog3.o and save this in libprog.o Then using libprog.o to link your
program instead of libprog.a will increase linking speed, and even if
someprog.c only uses, say prog1.o and prog2.o, only those two modules
will be in your final program.  This is also due to the fact that the
binder can handle single objects inside one object module as noted above.

If you are using an -lprog option (for libprog.a) above, and still want
to be able to do so, you should name the prelinked object with a
standard library name, e.g. libprogP.a (P identifying a prelinked
object), that can be specified by -lprogP.  You cannot use the archiver
(ar) on such an object.

You should also have a look at section 3.01 of this article, in
particular if you have mixed Fortran/C programs.

Dave Dennerline ( claims that his experiences
in prelinking on AIX does not save much time since most people have
separate libraries which do not have many dependencies between them,
thus not many symbols to resolve.

2.04: How do I statically link my program?

  cc -o prog -bnoso -bI:/lib/syscalls.exp obj1.o obj2.o obj3.o

will do that for a program consisting of the three objects obj1.o, etc.

From: Marc Pawliger (

As of AIX 3.2.5, you can install a speedup for AIXwindows called
Shared Memory Transport.  To static link an X application after the
SMT PTF has been installed, you must link with
-bI:/usr/lpp/X11/bin/smt.exp and the executable will NOT run on a
machine where SMT is not installed.  See /usr/lpp/X11/README.SMT

2.05: How do I make my own shared library?

To make your own shared object or library of shared objects, you should
know that a shared object cannot have undefined symbols.  Thus, if your
code uses any externals from /lib/libc.a, the latter MUST be linked with
your code to make a shared object.  Mike Heath ( said it
is possible to split code into more than one shared object when externals
in one object refer to another one.  You must be very good at
import/export files.  Perhaps he or someone can provide an example. 

Assume you have one file, sub1.c, containing a routine with no external
references, and another one, sub2.c, calling stuff in /lib/libc.a.  You
will also need two export files, sub1.exp, sub2.exp.  Read the example
below together with the examples on the ld man page. 

---- sub1.c ----
    int addint(int a, int b)
      return a + b;
---- sub2.c ----
    #include <stdio.h>

    void printint(int a)
      printf("The integer is: %d\n", a);
---- sub1.exp ----
---- sub2.exp ----
---- usesub.c ----
      printint( addint(5,8) );

The following commands will build your libshr.a, and compile/link the
program usesub to use it.  Note that you need the ld option -lc for
sub2shr.o since it calls printf from /lib/libc.a.

  $ cc  -c sub1.c
  $ ld -o sub1shr.o sub1.o -bE:sub1.exp -bM:SRE -T512 -H512 
  $ cc  -c sub2.c
  $ ld -o sub2shr.o sub2.o -bE:sub2.exp -bM:SRE -T512 -H512  -lc
  $ ar r libshr.a sub1shr.o sub2shr.o
  $ cc -o usesub usesub.c -L: libshr.a
  $ usesub
  The integer is: 13

2.06: Linking my program fails with strange errors.  Why?

Very simple, the linker (actually called the binder), cannot get the
memory it needs, either because your ulimits are too low or because you
don't have sufficient paging space.  Since the linker is quite different
>from normal Unix linkers and actually does much more than these, it also
uses a lot of virtual memory.  It is not unusual to need 10000 pages (of
4k) or more to execute a fairly complex linking.

If you get 'BUMP error', either ulimits or paging is too low, if you get
'Binder killed by signal 9' your paging is too low.

First, check your memory and data ulimits; in korn shell 'ulimit -a' will
show all limits and 'ulimit -m 99999' and 'ulimit -d 99999' will
increase the maximum memory and data respectively to some high values. 
If this was not your problem, you don't have enough paging space.

If you will or can not increase your paging space, you could try this:

- Do you duplicate libraries on the ld command line? That is never

- Do more users link simultaneously? Try having only one linking going
  on at any time.

- Do a partwise linking, i.e. you link some objects/libraries with the
  -r option to allow the temporary output to have unresolved references,
  then link with the rest of your objects/libraries.  This can be split
  up as much as you want, and will make each step use less virtual memory.

  If you follow this scheme, only adding one object or archive at a
  time, you will actually emulate the behavior of other Unix linkers.

If you decide to add more paging space, you should consider adding a new
paging space on a second hard disk, as opposed to just increasing the
existing one.  Doing the latter could make you run out of free space on
your first harddisk. It is more involved to shrink a paging space
but easier to delete one.